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Flashcards in Sharing the Pain of Women in Medicine Deck (23)
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go into private practice

I recently learned that a doctor friend had seriously considered quitting her job at her medical school to go into private practice.
*개인 병원을 차리다.



sit on

She recounted how, much more than her male colleagues, she would be assigned to work during major holidays, cover for others’ absences and sit on administrative committees that took time away from the research required to advance her career.
[VERB] [FORMAL] If you recount a story or event, you tell or describe it to people.
[VERB] [intr, preposition] to be a member of (a committee, etc)


그녀는 그녀의 경력을 쌓기 위한 연구에 할애할 시간을 뺏는 행정 위원회에 소속되곤 했습니다.

she would sit on administrative committees that took time away from the research required to advance her career.
*take time away from


discrepancy [dɪskrepənsi]2

raise [reɪz]

When she spoke to her chairman about the discrepancies, he listened— but never responded to her repeated requests for a raise or more support.
[NOUN] If there is a discrepancy between two things that ought to be the same, there is a noticeable difference between them.=inconsistency
[NOUN] [AM] A raise is an increase in your wages or salary.


attentive [ətentɪv]2


they listened attentively, then began relaying their frustrations with how little support they got from superiors.
[ADJ] If you are attentive, you are paying close attention to what is being said or done.
[VERB] [FORMAL] If you relay something that has been said to you, you repeat it to another person.


여자들은 곧 모든 학생들과 수련의들의 1/3~1/2 사이 정도를 차지했으며, 교수직을 차지하는 확률도 증가했다.

Women soon made up anywhere from a third to half of all students and trainees and an increasing percentage of the professors.
*make up anywhere from ~ to ~.



More than half of the women professors surveyed reported being discriminated against or sexually harassed, even as most of their male colleagues believed that such disparities in their institutions did not exist.
[NOUN] [FORMAL] If there is a disparity between two or more things, there is a noticeable difference between them.


fare [feər]

revere [rɪvɪər] 2

meritocracy [merɪtɒkrəsi] 1 3

Other studies found that women faculty members continued to make less money than their male peers, were promoted more slowly and even fared worse in academia’s most revered expression of meritocracy, the peer-review process.
[VERB] If you say that someone or something fares well or badly, you are referring to the degree of success they achieve in a particular situation or activity.
[VERB] [FORMAL] If you revere someone or something, you respect and admire them greatly.
[NOUN] A meritocracy is a society or social system in which people get status or rewards because of what they achieve, rather than because of their wealth or social status.능력주의
cf)merit-based payment scheme=성과급
seniority -based payment scheme



Some researchers attributed the persistent issue to a “pipeline problem,” insufficient numbers of senior level women in medicine, particularly in certain specialties like surgery.
[VERB] If you attribute something to an event or situation, you think that it was caused by that event or situation.


postulate [pɒstʃʊleɪt] 1

Other experts postulated that women were more sensitive to unfair treatment because they tended to be more relationship-oriented than their male colleagues.
[VERB] [FORMAL] If you postulate something, you suggest it as the basis for a theory, argument, or calculation, or assume that it is the basis.=assume


amount to

tautological [tɔ:təlɒdʒɪkəl] 1 3

zinger [zɪŋər] 1

Still others offered up what amounted to a tautological zinger.
*to be equal to or the same as something
[NOUN] Tautology is the use of different words to say the same thing twice in the same statement. `The money should be adequate enough' is an example of tautology.
[NOUN] [AM, INFORMAL] A zinger is a witty remark, or something that is lively, interesting, amusing, or impressive.


의학계에서의 성, 문화와 리더십에 대해 이루어진 국가적 계획의 일환으로 시행된 최근의 연구는 대학 병원에서의 여성의 불만족에 대한 다른 이유를 제시했습니다:

The latest study, conducted as part of the National Initiative on Gender, Culture and Leadership in Medicine, offers another reason for women’s discontent in academic medical centers:
*as part of ~의 일환으로


norm [nɔ:rm]

the organizational culture, or the norms of behavior and implicit values of these institutions
[NOUN] [usu pl, usu with supp] Norms are ways of behaving that are considered normal in a particular society.


demoralize [dɪmɔ:rəlaɪz] 2

And it’s not just women who are feeling demoralized.
[VERB] If something demoralizes someone, it makes them lose so much confidence in what they are doing that they want to give up.


compromise [kɒmprəmaɪz] 1

altruistic[æltruɪstɪk] 13

The researchers asked if they felt pressure to be more aggressive or compromise their values and if their institution promoted altruistic and public service values.
[VERB] [disapproval] If someone compromises themselves or compromises their beliefs, they do something which damages their reputation for honesty, loyalty, or high moral principles.
[ADJ] If your behaviour or motives are altruistic, you show concern for the happiness and welfare of other people rather than for yourself.


marginalize [mɑ:rdʒɪnəlaɪz]1

As in earlier studies, more women than men felt marginalized and discriminated against, despite being as ambitious and engaged in work as their male colleagues.
[VERB] To marginalize a group of people means to make them feel isolated and unimportant.


just [dʒʌst]

the men were just as likely as the women to feel what experts have termed “moral distress,” a sense of being trapped and forced to compromise on what one believes is right or just.
*Something that is really good.. it is justified. Something that makes sense.



compassion [kəmpæʃən] 2

It’s hard to ignore the far-reaching consequences of a work environment that has trouble modeling compassion and care.
[ADJ] If you describe actions, events, or changes as far-reaching, you mean that they have a very great influence and affect a great number of things.
[NOUN] Compassion is a feeling of pity, sympathy, and understanding for someone who is suffering.


preliminary [prɪlɪmɪneri] 2

In the Department of Medicine at Weill Cornell Medical College, a preliminary survey has shown that the mentoring program, which has just begun its third year at the school, has already helped to increase the degree of trust among faculty members.
[ADJ] Preliminary activities or discussions take place at the beginning of an event, often as a form of preparation.


이러한 변화들이 지속될지는 두고봐야 하지만, 남자들 물론 여자들도 포함하여 어떠한 향상으로부터 수혜를 받기 위한 입장에 있는 것이 점점 명확해지고 있다.

While it remains to be seen whether these changes will endure, it has become clearer that men, as well as women, stand to benefit from any improvement.
*it remains to be seen whether: ~일지는 두고 봐야 한다.


endure [ɪndʊr]2

While it remains to be seen whether these changes will endure, it has become clearer that men, as well as women, stand to benefit from any improvement.
[VERB] If something endures, it continues to exist without any loss in quality or importance.=persist


그러한 문화는 우리가 숨쉬는 공기 혹은 물고기가 헤엄치는 물과 같은 것이지요.
*사랑은 우리가 숨쉬는 공기, 우리가 마시는 물과 같아요. 당신은 그것이 없으면 살 수 없어요.

That culture is like the air we breathe or the water that fish swim in.
*Love is like the air we breathe and the water we drink. You can never live without it.


그것은 좋던 나쁘던 같은 방향으로 모두에게 영향을 줄 수 있는 가능성을 가지고 있어요.

It has the potential, for better or worse, to affect everybody in the same way.
*for better or (for) worse: 좋던 나쁘던whether the result is good or bad