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Uncle Sam

Uncle Sam Is Not Coming to Dinner.
[NOUN] [mainly AM; also BRIT, JOURNALISM] Some people refer to the United States of America or its government as Uncle Sam.



bloated [bloʊtɪd] 1

Either the government must act immediately to curb our waistlines, or we must act to curb our bloated government.
[VERB] If you curb something, you control it and keep it within limits.
[ADJ] [usu ADJ n] If you describe an organization as bloated, you mean that it is larger and less efficient than it should be.


motion [moʊʃən] 1

These were the questions debated in NYU’s Skirball Center last night at the Slate/Intelligence Squared live debate, in which four health and policy experts argued the motion that “Obesity is the government’s business.”
[NOUN] A motion is a formal proposal or statement in a meeting, debate, or trial, which is discussed and then voted on or decided on.


at/from the outset (of something)

Polled at the outset of the debate, 55 percent of the audience supported the motion, 19 percent opposed it, and 26 percent were undecided.
*at/from the beginning of something



By the close of the evening, the “yes” vote remained at 55 percent, but the “no” vote had swung up 16 percentage points to 35 percent, leaving only 10 percent undecided.
[VERB] If people's opinions, attitudes, or feelings swing, they change, especially in a sudden or extreme way.


butt out (of)

carry the day

According to Oxford-style rules, whichever side succeeds in changing the greatest number of minds wins, so the motion’s detractors (who believed that the state should butt out of our eating habits) carried the day.
*~에 대해 신경꺼라
used to tell somebody rudely to go away or not try to influence matters which do not concern them
*win a contest, an argument, etc.; be successful


spread a gospel of

Dr. Pamela Peeke, physician and chief lifestyle expert at WebMD, spread a gospel of weight loss through behavioral adjustments
[NOUN] [usu N of n, N according to n-proper] You can use gospel to refer to a particular way of thinking that a person or group believes in very strongly and that they try to persuade others to accept.
*~에 대한 신조를 퍼뜨리다


fervent [fɜ:rvənt] 1

From her partner Dr. David Satcher came a fervent defense of the government as primary caretaker.
[ADJ] A fervent person has or shows strong feelings about something, and is very sincere and enthusiastic about it.


Across the aisle

live up to something


Across the aisle, Fox News host John Stossel lived up to his libertarian reputation by painting tax-funded anti-obesity measures as Stalinist nightmares.
*반대편에서는/입장차이가 있는
cf) walk the aisle=get married
*to behave as well as or be as good or successful as people expect
*자유 의지론자


implore [ɪmplɔ:r] 2

embrace [ɪmbreɪs]2

And Paul Campos, an author and law professor at the University of Colorado, Boulder, implored Americans to embrace body diversity and focus on achieving healthier lifestyles.
[VERB] If you implore someone to do something, you ask them to do it in a forceful, emotional way.
[VERB] [FORMAL] If you embrace a change, political system, or idea, you accept it and start supporting it or believing in it.


moderator [mɒdəreɪtər] 1

get off to a ~(good/flying) start

By moderator John Donvan’s account, the debate got off to a slow start.
[NOUN] [FORMAL] In debates and negotiations, the moderator is the person who is in charge of the discussion and makes sure that it is conducted in a fair and organized way.
*to make a ~ start


tick somebody/something off

boss somebody around

Peeke, ticking off weight-loss success stories, insisted that the government partner with citizens instead of bossing them around.
[VERB] to mark with a tick
*to put a mark next to something on a list to show that it has been dealt with
*to tell somebody what to do in a determined or unpleasant way


get a stony reception



exempt [ɪgzempt]2

Stossel’s challenge to the welfare state also got a stony reception (though a ripple of laughter ran through the hall when he mocked a recent law exempting Kit-Kat bars from “candy” status in schools because they contain flour).
*get a stony reception 차가운 반응을 받다
[NOUN] [usu pl, with supp] If an event causes ripples, its effects gradually spread, causing several other events to happen one after the other.
[VERB] If someone mocks you, they show or pretend that they think you are foolish or inferior, for example by saying something funny about you, or by imitating your behaviour.
[VERB] To exempt a person or thing from a particular rule, duty, or obligation means to state officially that they are not bound or affected by it.


웃음을 물결이 홀에 퍼져나갔다.

a ripple of laughter ran through the hall



Campos was the first to engage the sold-out crowd with his suggestion that the debate topic itself used misleading language.
[NOUN] [usu sing, oft N to n] [disapproval] If you describe someone's behaviour as a sell-out, you disapprove of the fact that they have done something which used to be against their principles, or given in to an opposing group.


'비만은 정부의 일이다'라는 말을 하는 발언을 하는 것은 그 논쟁을 기정사실화된 병적 상태에 관한 것으로 규정시키는 겁니다.

To have a motion that says, ‘Obesity is the government's business’ frames the debate as one … about a supposedly pathological state.
*frame A as B
*supposedly: assumed as true, regardless of fact; hypothetical often mistakenly spelled and pronounced supposively



overblown [oʊvərbloʊn] 1 3

Campos unspooled a string of data suggesting that obesity’s adverse health effects were overblown.
*~을 풀어놓다.
[ADJ] Something that is overblown makes something seem larger, more important, or more significant than it really is.


correlation [kɔ:rəleɪʃən] 1 3

causation [kɔ:zeɪʃən] 2

Much of his case boiled down to the difference between correlation and causation.
[NOUN] [FORMAL] A correlation between things is a connection or link between them.
[NOUN] [FORMAL] The causation of something, usually something bad, is the factors that have caused it.


그 것이 상당히 큰 차이처럼 들릴 수 있다고 생각합니다만 사실 그 둘 사이에는 어떤 실질적인 차이가 없습니다.

I think that would sound a lot different, but in point of fact there is no practical distinction between the two.


demonstrably [dɪmɒnstrəbli] 2

Even if carrying extra weight were demonstrably unhealthy, he added, science knows no effective method for converting fat humans into thin humans.
*실례를 들어 보여줄 수 있을 정도로 명백하게


vast [vɑ:st, væst]

aver [əvɜ:r] 2

“The vast majority of people cannot intentionally modify their body mass in a long-term fashion,” he averred, before proposing that the drug companies funding obesity research have a strong interest in convincing us otherwise.
[ADJ] Something that is vast is extremely large.
[VERB] [FORMAL] If you aver that something is the case, you say very firmly that it is true.


"대다수의 사람들이 장기적으로는 의도적으로 그들의 체질량을 바꿀 수 없습니다" 그는 매우 확신에 차서 말했습니다. 그리고나서 비만연구에 투자하는 제약회사들이 그렇지 않다는 것을 우리에게 설득하는데에 강한 집념을 보인다는 것을 제시했습니다.

“The vast majority of people cannot intentionally modify their body mass in a long-term fashion,” he averred, before proposing that the drug companies funding obesity research have a strong interest in convincing us otherwise.
*,before ~ing 그러고 나서 ~했다.


cite [saɪt]

drop [drɒp]

build [bɪld]

In response, Peeke cited the National Weight Control Registry, a collection of 10,000 “successful losers” who dropped at least 30 pounds and maintained their slimmer build for more than a year.
[VERB] [FORMAL] If you cite something, you quote it or mention it, especially as an example or proof of what you are saying.
[VERB] If a level or amount drops or if someone or something drops it, it quickly becomes less.뭄무게
[NOUN] Someone's build is the shape that their bones and muscles give to their body.


weave [wi:v] into

Peeke maintained that the government could advance public health by weaving useful tips about obesity prevention and treatment into school curricula.
[VERB] [WRITTEN] If you weave details into a story or design, you include them, so that they are closely linked together or become an important part of the story or design.


"왜냐하면 학교는 읽기, 쓰기 그리고 산수조차 거의 제대로 가르치지 못하거든요." Stossel이 대답했습니다. 그랬더니 사람들이 크게 웃었습니다.

“Because the schools can barely teach reading, writing, and arithmetic,” Stossel answered, to roars of laughter.
*~, to roars of laughter:~했더니 사람들이 크게 웃었다.


topple [tɒpəl] 1

triage [tri:ɑ:ʒ]1

But moments later, Satcher neatly toppled this call for triage.
[VERB] If someone or something topples somewhere or if you topple them, they become unsteady or unstable and fall over.
[NOUN] [MEDICAL] Triage is the process of quickly examining sick or injured people, for example after an accident or a battle, so that those who are in the most serious condition can be treated first.
[명사] 병원에서 (치료 우선순위를 정하기 위한) 부상자 분류


death blow

When Stossel replied that they could do so by watching Peeke’s show on the Discovery Channel, Peeke was ready with the death blow.
[NOUN] If you say that an event or action deals a death blow to something such as a plan or hope, or is a death blow to something, you mean that it puts an end to it.


envision [ɪnvɪʒən] 2

the battle of the bulge

Former Surgeon General Satcher envisioned the broadest role for the federal government in the battle of the bulge.
[VERB] [AM; also BRIT, LITERARY] If you envision something, you envisage it.(If you envisage something, you imagine that it is true, real, or likely to happen.)
*비만과의 전쟁


benign [bɪnaɪn]2

parallel [pærəlel]

Though benign, his picture almost paralleled Stossel’s three-part description of the process by which government grows and liberty yields.
[ADJ] [usu ADJ n] You use benign to describe someone who is kind, gentle, and harmless.
[VERB] If one thing parallels another, they happen at the same time or are similar, and often seem to be connected.


trace [treɪs] (on)

imperative [ɪmperətɪv] 2

encroach [ɪnkroʊtʃ] 2

Meanwhile, Campos traced the nation’s fat-phobia not to any kind of welfare imperative (or encroaching fascism), but to the desire for social status.
[VERB] If you trace the origin or development of something, you find out or describe how it started or developed.
[ADJ] [FORMAL] If it is imperative that something is done, that thing is extremely important and must be done.
[VERB] [disapproval, FORMAL] If one thing encroaches on another, the first thing spreads or becomes stronger, and slowly begins to restrict the power, range, or effectiveness of the second thing.