Forget About the Mythical Lone Inventor in the Garage. Flashcards Preview

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Mythical [mɪθɪkəl] 1

Lone [loʊn]

Forget About the Mythical Lone Inventor in the Garage.
[ADJ] [usu ADJ n] Something or someone that is mythical exists only in myths and is therefore imaginary.
[ADJ] [ADJ n] If you talk about a lone person or thing, you mean that they are alone.


RSVP [ɑ:r es vi: pi:]1 4

For more information and to RSVP, visit the New America Foundation’s website.
[etc.] [FORMAL] RSVP is an abbreviation for `répondez s'il vous plaît', which means `please reply'. It is written on the bottom of a card inviting you to a party or special occasion.


workshop [wɜ:rkʃɒp]1

A basement workshop.
[NOUN] A workshop is a building which contains tools or machinery for making or repairing things, especially using wood or metal.


sturdy [stɜ:rdi] 1

workbench [wɜ:rkbentʃ]1

A brilliant inventor doesn’t need much more than a garage, a sturdy workbench, and a dream.
[ADJ] Someone or something that is sturdy looks strong and is unlikely to be easily injured or damaged.
[NOUN] A workbench is a heavy wooden table on which people use tools such as a hammer and nails to make or repair things.


single combat

feverish [fi:vərɪʃ]1

threadbare [θredbeər]1

den [den]

From Thomas Edison to Iron Man, our inventor-heroes have been popularly viewed as single-combat warriors working feverishly in a basement or some other threadbare den of solitude.
*일대일 전투,싸움
[ADJ] Feverish activity is done extremely quickly, often in a state of nervousness or excitement because you want to finish it as soon as possible.
[ADJ] Threadbare clothes, carpets, and other pieces of cloth look old, dull, and very thin, because they have been worn or used too much.
[NOUN] [AM] Your den is a quiet room in your house where you can go to study, work, or carry on a hobby without being disturbed. 동굴, 방


dingy [dɪndʒi]1

enterprise [entərpraɪz]1

entrepreneurship [ɒntrəprənɜ:r] 14

And that’s unfortunate, because the myth that innovative genius burns brightest in dingy isolation has a real impact on the way this nation views the importance of the knowledge enterprise and the scientific infrastructure that supports it.
[ADJ] A dingy building or place is rather dark and depressing, and perhaps dirty.
[NOUN] [approval] Enterprise is the ability to think of new and effective things to do, together with an eagerness to do them.대규모 사업
[NOUN] Entrepreneurship is the state of being an entrepreneur, or the activities associated with being an entrepreneur. 기업가 정신


ransack [rænsæk]1

“I tested no fewer than 6,000 vegetable growths, and ransacked the world for the most suitable filament material."
[VERB] If people ransack a building, they damage things in it or make it very untidy, often because they are looking for something in a quick and careless way.



It’s awe-inspiring to think of Edison sitting alone at his workbench in Menlo Park, N.J., patiently testing fiber after fiber, hour after hour, day after day.
[ADJ] [emphasis] If you describe someone or something as awe-inspiring, you are emphasizing that you think that they are remarkable and amazing, although sometimes rather frightening.



It’s also patently untrue.
[ADJ] [emphasis] You use patent to describe something, especially something bad, in order to indicate in an emphatic way that you think its nature or existence is clear and obvious.
너무도 확실하게


전구가 성공인 것으로 판명나자, 에디슨은 훨씬 더 큰 "Invention Factory"을 짓는 단계로 넘어갔다.

After the light bulb proved successful, Edison went on to build an even larger “Invention Factory” .
*go on to:~으로 넘어가다/착수하다


전성기 때는, 그 것(공장)은 200명이 넘는 과학자, 기계기술자, 장인 그리고 다른 일꾼들을 고용했었다.

At its peak, it employed more than 200 scientists, machinists, craftsmen, and other workers.
*At its peak: 최대로 컸을 때


burnish [bɜ:rnɪʃ] 1

Edison succeeded in burnishing his public image as a lonely genius.
[VERB] [WRITTEN] To burnish the image of someone or something means to improve their image.


garland [gɑ:rlənd]1

transcend [trænsend]2

Here was a solitary genius revolutionizing the world—a genius that conquered conservatism, garlanded cities in light, and created wonders that transcended the predictions of Utopian poets.
[NOUN] A garland is a circular decoration made from flowers and leaves. People sometimes wear garlands of flowers on their heads or around their necks.화환을 씌우다
[VERB] Something that transcends normal limits or boundaries goes beyond them, because it is more significant than them.


아마도 마지막 영웅적인 발명가의 죽음은 그와 함께 죽었다. (그가 죽음으로써 마지막 영웅적인 발명가도 죽었다.

With him passes perhaps the last of the heroic inventors.
*With him passes perhaps the last of
이 사람이 죽음으로써 마지막의 ~도 죽었다.
=이 사람이 마지막이었다.


away from

newsreel [nu:zri:l]1

But away from the reporters and the newsreel cameras, Edison was in fact that scientific captain, the executive director of a big, world-class laboratory.
*객관적으로 멀리 떨어져서 보면
[NOUN] A newsreel is a short film of national or international news events. In the past newsreels were made for showing in cinemas.


plaque [plæk, plɑ:k]

Today, that garage is marked with a plaque from the National Register of Historic Places declaring it “The Birthplace of `Silicon Valley.’ ”
[NOUN] A plaque is a flat piece of metal or stone with writing on it which is fixed to a wall or other structure to remind people of an important person or event.


oscillate [ɒsɪleɪt]1

oscillator [|ɒsɪ|leɪtə] 2

It’s certainly true that Hewlett and Packard began building their first commercial audio oscillators inside that historic garage.
[VERB] [FORMAL] If an object oscillates, it moves repeatedly from one position to another and back again, or keeps getting bigger and smaller.
[NOUN] a circuit or instrument for producing an alternating current or voltage of a required frequency



So while that Palo Alto garage may be a legendary landmark for the IT industry, Hewlett-Packard would not have been possible without its founders’ access to state-of-the-art engineering labs.
[ADJ] If you describe something as state-of-the-art, you mean that it is the best available because it has been made using the most modern techniques and technology.


undermine [ʌndərmaɪn] 1 3

They threaten to undermine public support for the scientific infrastructure that is necessary to fuel American innovation and assure global economic competitiveness in the decades to come.
[VERB] If you undermine someone's efforts or undermine their chances of achieving something, you behave in a way that makes them less likely to succeed.


그것들은(그 환상들) 과학적인 제반시설을 위한 공적 지지를 저해하는 위협을 가하고 있는데, 그 제반시설은 앞으로 몇 십년동안 미국의 혁신을 가속화시키는데에 그리고 지국적 경제의 경쟁력을 확신시켜주기 위해 필요한 것입니다.

They threaten to undermine public support for the scientific infrastructure that is necessary to fuel American innovation and assure global economic competitiveness in the decades to come.
*in the decades to come


expertise [ekspɜ:rti:z] 1 3

But we do know the most promising way to find those answers—by organizing them into “dream teams” with the combined expertise necessary to look at these questions from multiple perspective.
[NOUN] Expertise is special skill or knowledge that is acquired by training, study, or practice.


과거 몇년동안에는, 이러한 종류의 전문가들로 이루어진 임무 중심 팀들이 IBM과 같은 미국의 저명한 회사 연구소들에서 발견되었었습니다.

In years past, these types of mission-focused teams of experts could be found in America’s renowned corporate laboratories, such as IBM.
*In years past: 과거 몇년 간이라는 구체적인 시간을 말해줌.


viable [vaɪəbəl]1

organizations designed to turn scientific discoveries into commercially viable inventions and technologies.
[ADJ] [TECHNICAL] Foetuses, seeds, or eggs are described as viable if they are capable of developing into living beings without outside help. 독자 생존 가능한


be prized

building block

I began my own career at Bell Labs, back in 1988, drawn by its reputation as a place where fundamental research was prized as the basic building block of technological innovation in the service of information technology.
[VERB] [usu passive] Something that is prized is wanted and admired because it is considered to be very valuable or very good quality.
[NOUN] If you describe something as a building block of something, you mean it is one of the separate parts that combine to make that thing.


magnet [mægnɪt] 1

For decades, as Jon Gertner describes in his recent book The Idea Factory, Bell Labs had served as a magnet for some of the world’s top researchers in science, computers, and mathematics.
[NOUN] [usu a N in sing, oft N for n] If you say that something is a magnet or is like a magnet, you mean that people are very attracted by it and want to go to it or look at it.


in the wake of

deregulation [di:regjʊleɪʃən] 1 2 4

spin off

But in 1995, in the wake of deregulation, AT&T spun off the labs, resulting in sharply decreased research budgets and a much narrower focus on technological research with a shorter-term likelihood of commercial marketability.
*coming after and resulting from somebody/something; behind somebody/something
[NOUN] [BUSINESS] Deregulation is the removal of controls and restrictions in a particular area of business or trade.
[VERB] [tr, preposition] to turn (a part of a business enterprise) into a separate company


pull out (of)

Bell Labs’ reign as the world’s greatest industrial laboratory ended in 2008 when it pulled out of basic science, material physics, and semiconductor research
*to move or to make somebody/something move away from something or stop being involved in it


bastion [bæstʃən]1

a decision that put an end to one of the last bastions of basic research within the corporate world
[NOUN] [FORMAL] If a system or organization is described as a bastion of a particular way of life, it is seen as being important and effective in defending that way of life. Bastion can be used both when you think that this way of life should be ended and when you think it should be defended.


spawn [spɔ:n]

ut without basic research, we will not be able to create the new products that spawn new industries and create good new jobs.
[VERB] [LITERARY] If something spawns something else, it causes it to happen or to be created.


fall on somebody/something

So, increasingly, the responsibility for funding basic scientific research has fallen on the federal government.
*to be the responsibility or duty of a particular person or organization