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남자가 여자보다 더 폭력적이라는 것은 눈치채지 않고서는 지나쳐지지 않을 것입니다.

It will not have gone unnoticed that men are more violent than women.
*go unnoticed


perpetrate [pɜ:rpɪtreɪt] 1

homicide [hɒmɪsaɪd] 1

Men perpetrate about 90 percent of the world's homicides and start all of the wars.
[VERB] [FORMAL] If someone perpetrates a crime or any other immoral or harmful act, they do it.
[NOUN] [mainly AM] Homicide is the illegal killing of a person.


contend [kəntend]2

A recent article in a prominent science journal contends that evolution has shaped men to be warriors.
[VERB] [FORMAL] If you contend that something is true, you state or argue that it is true.


program [proʊgræm]1

coalition [koʊəlɪʃən] 1 3

procure [prəkjʊər] 2

More specifically, the authors claim that men are biologically programmed to form coalitions that aggress against neighbors either through force or by procuring resources that would make them more desirable.
[VERB] [COMPUTING] When you program a computer, you give it a set of instructions to make it able to perform a particular task.
[NOUN] [oft N of n] A coalition is a group consisting of people from different political or social groups who are co-operating to achieve a particular aim.
[VERB] [FORMAL] If you procure something, especially something that is difficult to get, you obtain it.


alluring [əlʊrɪŋ]2

dubious [du:biəs] 1

The male warrior hypothesis is alluring because it makes sense of male violence, but it is based on a dubious interpretation of the science.
[ADJ] Someone or something that is alluring is very attractive.
[ADJ] If you describe something as dubious, you mean that you do not consider it to be completely honest, safe, or reliable.


competing [kəmpi:tɪŋ]2

I point out that such evolutionary explanations of behavior are often worse than competing historical explanations.
[ADJ] Competing ideas, requirements, or interests cannot all be right or satisfied at the same time.


eschew [ɪstʃu:]2

A historical explanation of male violence does not eschew biological factors, but it minimizes them and assumes that men and woman are psychologically similar.
[VERB] [FORMAL] If you eschew something, you deliberately avoid doing it or becoming involved in it.


differential [dɪfərenʃəl] 1 3

n hunter-gatherer societies, this strength differential doesn't allow men to fully dominate women, because they depend on the food that women gather.
[NOUN] [mainly BRIT] A differential is a difference between things, especially rates of pay.격차


advent [ædvent] 1


But things change with the advent of intensive agriculture and herding.
[NOUN] [FORMAL] The advent of an important event, invention, or situation is the fact of it starting or coming into existence.도래
*집단 목축


야~ 우리 한 가족(공동체)이잖아

Hey, we are a herd!


무거운 쟁기들과 큰 동물들이 식량 생산에서 주요하게 되자, 힘은 남성에게 이점이 되었습니다. 여성과 대비하여 볼 때 말입니다.

Strength gives men an advantage over women once heavy ploughs and large animals become central aspects of food production.


philander [fɪ|lændə]1

The economic dependency allows men to mistreat women, to philander, and to take over labor markets and political institutions.
[VERB] [(intr, often foll by with)] (of a man) to flirt with women =womanizer


dispense with somebody/something

advance [ædvɑ:ns, -væns]2

With these assumptions, we can dispense with the male warrior hypothesis, which is advanced by Melissa McDonald.
*to get rid of something; to stop using somebody/something because they are/it is no longer necessary
[VERB] If you advance a cause, interest, or claim, you support it and help to make it successful.



farming technologies allowed men co-opt power over the course of human history.
[VERB] If a group or political party co-opts a slogan or policy, they take it, often from another group or political party, and use it themselves.


xenophobic [zenəfoʊbɪk] 1 3

be wired to

The authors claim that men are more xenophobic than women, because they are wired to wage war.
[ADJ] [disapproval, FORMAL] If you describe someone as xenophobic, you disapprove of them because they show strong dislike or fear of people from other countries.
[VERB] If you wire something such as a building or piece of equipment, you put wires inside it so that electricity or signals can pass into or through it.
=be programmed to


testify [testɪfaɪ]1 to

The authors contend that, compared to women, men prefer social dominance hierarchies, which testifies to their innately competitive nature.
*to show or be evidence that something is true


endorse [ɪndɔ:rs] 2

be primed to

The authors cite a disturbing study in which men endorse war after being primed with a picture of an attractive woman, which suggests that male violence has a sexual motive.
[VERB] If you endorse someone or something, you say publicly that you support or approve of them
[VERB] If you prime someone to do something, you prepare them to do it, for example by giving them information about it beforehand.
~가 준비된 후에


coercive [koʊɜ:rsɪv] 2

But the link between sex and violence may derive from the fact that sex is often coercive in male dominant societies
[ADJ] Coercive measures are intended to force people to do something that they do not want to do.


impregnate [ɪmpregneɪt] 2

he authors also remark that women become more racist at times of peak fertility, suggesting fear of impregnation by foreign invaders.
[VERB] [FORMAL] When a man or a male animal impregnates a female, he makes her pregnant.


menstrual peaks

latent [leɪtənt] 1

be/come to the fore

A different explanation is that menstrual peaks also bring out strong emotions, which lets latent racism come to the fore.
* 가임기
[ADJ] Latent is used to describe something which is hidden and not obvious at the moment, but which may develop further in the future.
*be or become important and noticed by people; play an important part전면에부상하다


pan out

The male warrior hypothesis makes many predictions that don't pan out.
[VERB] [intr, adverb, informal] to work out; turn out; result현실화 되다.


effeminate [ɪfemɪnət]2

women often like effeminate men.
[ADJ] [disapproval] If you describe a man or boy as effeminate, you think he behaves, looks, or sounds like a woman or girl.


be hardwired to

foreign men are hardwired to attack them
[ADJ] If an ability, approach, or type of activity is hard-wired into the brain, it is a basic one and cannot be changed.



some anthropologists argue that ancestral populations were too sparse for frequent contact.
[ADJ] Something that is sparse is small in number or amount and spread out over an area.


perpetuate [pərpetʃueɪt] 2

polygamous [pəlɪgəməs] 2

monogamous [mənɒgəməs] 2

The authors perpetuate the myth that evolution prefers men to be polygamous and females to be monogamous, but we see every variation in other species.
[VERB] If someone or something perpetuates a situation, system, or belief, especially a bad one, they cause it to continue.
[ADJ] In a polygamous society, people can be legally married to more than one person at the same time. A polygamous person, especially a man, is married to more than one person.
[ADJ] Someone who is monogamous or who has a monogamous relationship has a sexual relationship with only one partner.


On the flipside

hawkish [hɔ:kɪʃ] 1

belligerent [bɪlɪdʒərənt]2

On the flipside, women who gain power, like Margaret Thatcher and Condaleeza Rice, are often hawkish, suggesting that power, not gender, determines belligerence.
*뒤집어 생각하면/on the other hand, conversely
[ADJ] Journalists use hawkish to describe politicians or governments who are in favour of using force to achieve something, rather than using peaceful and diplomatic methods.
[ADJ] A belligerent person is hostile and aggressive.


judiciary [dʒu:dɪʃieri] 2

dole something out

cf)mete out

Women in the judiciary dole out harsher penalties than men.
[NOUN] [FORMAL] The judiciary is the branch of authority in a country which is concerned with law and the legal system.
*to give money, food, etc. to a group of people
cf)mete out: to give somebody a punishment, etc.


suffice [səfaɪs] 2

. Nor will it suffice to empower women.
[VERB] [FORMAL] If you say that something will suffice, you mean it will be enough to achieve a purpose or to fulfil a need.
[PHRASE] Suffice it to say or suffice to say is used at the beginning of a statement to indicate that what you are saying is obvious, or that you will only give a short explanation.


precipitous[prɪsɪpɪtəs] 2

suffrage [sʌfrɪdʒ] 1

Warfare did not decline precipitously with women's suffrage, and during recent conflicts with Russia, 43 percent of Chechen suicide bombers have been women.
[ADJ] [usu ADJ n] A precipitous action happens very quickly and often without being planned.
[NOUN] [FORMAL] Suffrage is the right of people to vote for a government or national leader.


ignoble[ɪgnoʊbəl] 2

savage [sævɪdʒ]1

In fact, Pinker too eagerly accepts the myth of the ignoble savage.
[ADJ] [disapproval, FORMAL] If you describe something as ignoble, you mean that it is bad and something to be ashamed of.
[NOUN] [disapproval] If you refer to people as savages, you dislike them because you think that they do not have an advanced society and are violent.