Flashcards in Why Are Men So Violent? Deck (32)
남자가 여자보다 더 폭력적이라는 것은 눈치채지 않고서는 지나쳐지지 않을 것입니다.
It will not have gone unnoticed that men are more violent than women.
perpetrate [pɜ:rpɪtreɪt] 1
homicide [hɒmɪsaɪd] 1
Men perpetrate about 90 percent of the world's homicides and start all of the wars.
[VERB] [FORMAL] If someone perpetrates a crime or any other immoral or harmful act, they do it.
[NOUN] [mainly AM] Homicide is the illegal killing of a person.
A recent article in a prominent science journal contends that evolution has shaped men to be warriors.
[VERB] [FORMAL] If you contend that something is true, you state or argue that it is true.
coalition [koʊəlɪʃən] 1 3
procure [prəkjʊər] 2
More specifically, the authors claim that men are biologically programmed to form coalitions that aggress against neighbors either through force or by procuring resources that would make them more desirable.
[VERB] [COMPUTING] When you program a computer, you give it a set of instructions to make it able to perform a particular task.
[NOUN] [oft N of n] A coalition is a group consisting of people from different political or social groups who are co-operating to achieve a particular aim.
[VERB] [FORMAL] If you procure something, especially something that is difficult to get, you obtain it.
dubious [du:biəs] 1
The male warrior hypothesis is alluring because it makes sense of male violence, but it is based on a dubious interpretation of the science.
[ADJ] Someone or something that is alluring is very attractive.
[ADJ] If you describe something as dubious, you mean that you do not consider it to be completely honest, safe, or reliable.
I point out that such evolutionary explanations of behavior are often worse than competing historical explanations.
[ADJ] Competing ideas, requirements, or interests cannot all be right or satisfied at the same time.
A historical explanation of male violence does not eschew biological factors, but it minimizes them and assumes that men and woman are psychologically similar.
[VERB] [FORMAL] If you eschew something, you deliberately avoid doing it or becoming involved in it.
differential [dɪfərenʃəl] 1 3
n hunter-gatherer societies, this strength differential doesn't allow men to fully dominate women, because they depend on the food that women gather.
[NOUN] [mainly BRIT] A differential is a difference between things, especially rates of pay.격차
advent [ædvent] 1
But things change with the advent of intensive agriculture and herding.
[NOUN] [FORMAL] The advent of an important event, invention, or situation is the fact of it starting or coming into existence.도래
야~ 우리 한 가족(공동체)이잖아
Hey, we are a herd!
무거운 쟁기들과 큰 동물들이 식량 생산에서 주요하게 되자, 힘은 남성에게 이점이 되었습니다. 여성과 대비하여 볼 때 말입니다.
Strength gives men an advantage over women once heavy ploughs and large animals become central aspects of food production.
The economic dependency allows men to mistreat women, to philander, and to take over labor markets and political institutions.
[VERB] [(intr, often foll by with)] (of a man) to flirt with women =womanizer
dispense with somebody/something
advance [ædvɑ:ns, -væns]2
With these assumptions, we can dispense with the male warrior hypothesis, which is advanced by Melissa McDonald.
*to get rid of something; to stop using somebody/something because they are/it is no longer necessary
[VERB] If you advance a cause, interest, or claim, you support it and help to make it successful.
farming technologies allowed men co-opt power over the course of human history.
[VERB] If a group or political party co-opts a slogan or policy, they take it, often from another group or political party, and use it themselves.
xenophobic [zenəfoʊbɪk] 1 3
be wired to
The authors claim that men are more xenophobic than women, because they are wired to wage war.
[ADJ] [disapproval, FORMAL] If you describe someone as xenophobic, you disapprove of them because they show strong dislike or fear of people from other countries.
[VERB] If you wire something such as a building or piece of equipment, you put wires inside it so that electricity or signals can pass into or through it.
=be programmed to
testify [testɪfaɪ]1 to
The authors contend that, compared to women, men prefer social dominance hierarchies, which testifies to their innately competitive nature.
*to show or be evidence that something is true
endorse [ɪndɔ:rs] 2
be primed to
The authors cite a disturbing study in which men endorse war after being primed with a picture of an attractive woman, which suggests that male violence has a sexual motive.
[VERB] If you endorse someone or something, you say publicly that you support or approve of them
[VERB] If you prime someone to do something, you prepare them to do it, for example by giving them information about it beforehand.
~가 준비된 후에
coercive [koʊɜ:rsɪv] 2
But the link between sex and violence may derive from the fact that sex is often coercive in male dominant societies
[ADJ] Coercive measures are intended to force people to do something that they do not want to do.
impregnate [ɪmpregneɪt] 2
he authors also remark that women become more racist at times of peak fertility, suggesting fear of impregnation by foreign invaders.
[VERB] [FORMAL] When a man or a male animal impregnates a female, he makes her pregnant.
latent [leɪtənt] 1
be/come to the fore
A different explanation is that menstrual peaks also bring out strong emotions, which lets latent racism come to the fore.
[ADJ] Latent is used to describe something which is hidden and not obvious at the moment, but which may develop further in the future.
*be or become important and noticed by people; play an important part전면에부상하다
The male warrior hypothesis makes many predictions that don't pan out.
[VERB] [intr, adverb, informal] to work out; turn out; result현실화 되다.
women often like effeminate men.
[ADJ] [disapproval] If you describe a man or boy as effeminate, you think he behaves, looks, or sounds like a woman or girl.
be hardwired to
foreign men are hardwired to attack them
[ADJ] If an ability, approach, or type of activity is hard-wired into the brain, it is a basic one and cannot be changed.
some anthropologists argue that ancestral populations were too sparse for frequent contact.
[ADJ] Something that is sparse is small in number or amount and spread out over an area.
perpetuate [pərpetʃueɪt] 2
polygamous [pəlɪgəməs] 2
monogamous [mənɒgəməs] 2
The authors perpetuate the myth that evolution prefers men to be polygamous and females to be monogamous, but we see every variation in other species.
[VERB] If someone or something perpetuates a situation, system, or belief, especially a bad one, they cause it to continue.
[ADJ] In a polygamous society, people can be legally married to more than one person at the same time. A polygamous person, especially a man, is married to more than one person.
[ADJ] Someone who is monogamous or who has a monogamous relationship has a sexual relationship with only one partner.
On the flipside
hawkish [hɔ:kɪʃ] 1
On the flipside, women who gain power, like Margaret Thatcher and Condaleeza Rice, are often hawkish, suggesting that power, not gender, determines belligerence.
*뒤집어 생각하면/on the other hand, conversely
[ADJ] Journalists use hawkish to describe politicians or governments who are in favour of using force to achieve something, rather than using peaceful and diplomatic methods.
[ADJ] A belligerent person is hostile and aggressive.
judiciary [dʒu:dɪʃieri] 2
dole something out
Women in the judiciary dole out harsher penalties than men.
[NOUN] [FORMAL] The judiciary is the branch of authority in a country which is concerned with law and the legal system.
*to give money, food, etc. to a group of people
cf)mete out: to give somebody a punishment, etc.
suffice [səfaɪs] 2
. Nor will it suffice to empower women.
[VERB] [FORMAL] If you say that something will suffice, you mean it will be enough to achieve a purpose or to fulfil a need.
[PHRASE] Suffice it to say or suffice to say is used at the beginning of a statement to indicate that what you are saying is obvious, or that you will only give a short explanation.
suffrage [sʌfrɪdʒ] 1
Warfare did not decline precipitously with women's suffrage, and during recent conflicts with Russia, 43 percent of Chechen suicide bombers have been women.
[ADJ] [usu ADJ n] A precipitous action happens very quickly and often without being planned.
[NOUN] [FORMAL] Suffrage is the right of people to vote for a government or national leader.