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Flashcards in The golden rice-bowl Deck (25)
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1

중국 경제가 지난 30년간을 걸쳐서 붐을 맞이함에 따라, 민간기업으로 들어가는 사람들의 수도 그에 따라 증가해오고 있습니다.

AS CHINA’S economy has boomed over the past 30 years, the number of young people going into private business has grown accordingly.
*over the past 30 years
*go into private business
*accordingly [əkɔ:rdɪŋli] 2 [ADV] [ADV after v] If you consider a situation and then act accordingly, the way you act depends on the nature of the situation.

2

"바다의 뛰어들기" 산업 혹은 "xia hai"라고 알려져 있는 산업은 (점차) 돈을 벌고 앞으로 나아가는 길르 받아들여졌었고 정부 직책에 대한 수요(흥미)는 감소했다.

“Diving into the sea” of commerce, or xia hai as it is known, became accepted as the way to make money and get ahead, and interest in government jobs declined.
*as it is known

3

in droves [droʊvz]

post [poʊst]

quadruple [kwɒdru:pəl] 1 2

Over the past decade, though, in an extraordinary reversal, young job seekers have been applying in droves for government posts, even as the economy has quadrupled in size.
[NOUN] [usu with supp, oft N of/as n] [FORMAL] A post in a company or organization is a job or official position in it, usually one that involves responsibility.직책
[NOUN] [emphasis] If you say that people are going somewhere or doing something in droves, you are emphasizing that there is a very large number of them.
[VERB] If someone quadruples an amount or if it quadruples, it becomes four times bigger.

4

과거 10년동안, 어린 구직자들이 정부 직책에 엄청나게 지원하고 있다는 것은 놀라운 추세의 반전입니다. 경제의 크기가 4배로 증가했는데도 말이죠.

Over the past decade in an extraordinary reversal, young job seekers have been applying in droves for government posts, even as the economy has quadrupled in size.

5

11월 25일에 국가 행정 고시가 있을 것이며, 약 14만명의 사람들이 그것을 볼 것입니다. 이것은 10년 전보다 20배 더 많은 수치입니다.

On November 25th the national civil-service examinations will take place, and about 1.4m people will sit them, 20 times more than a decade ago.
*sit them: ~을 보다

6

provincial [prəvɪnʃəl] 2

long odds

Millions more sit the equivalent provincial exams with similarly long odds of being hired.
[ADJ] [ADJ n] Provincial means connected with the parts of a country away from the capital city.
*slim chance
cf) long shot [NOUN] a competitor, as in a race, considered to be unlikely to win

7

resurgent [rɪsɜ:rdʒənt] 2

account [əkaʊnt] 2

spoils [spɔɪl]

This helps account for the resurgent appeal of the party as a conveyor of status, connections and spoils.
[ADJ] [FORMAL] You use resurgent to say that something is becoming stronger and more popular after a period when it has been weak and unimportant.
[NOUN] The spoils of something are things that people get as a result of winning a battle or of doing something successfully.

8

plum [plʌm]

well-placed

merit-based

Other routes exist into plum state jobs—having a well-placed friend or relative in government always helps—but, in a faint echo of China’s ancient imperial exam system, civil-service tests, introduced on a national level in 1994, offer a relatively merit-based way to get in.
[ADJ] [JOURNALISM] A plum job, contract, or role is a very good one that a lot of people would like.
*요직에 있는
[PHRASE] If you judge something or someone on merit or on their merits, your judgment is based on what you notice when you consider them, rather than on things that you know about them from other sources.

9

중국의 고대 황제 시대의 시험 제도를 살짝 반영한 행정고시가 상대적으로 (정부직책에 ) 들어가기 위한 성과체제적 방법을 제공합니다.

In a faint echo of China’s ancient imperial exam system, civil-service tests, offer a relatively merit-based way to get in.
*In a faint echo of~: ~을 살짝 반영하여

10

성공한 지원자들은 그들이 일하러 나오기만 하면 아마 실망할 것이지만 정부 요직을 차지하려고 하는자와 그것을 비판하는 자 사이에서 사무관이 되는 것은 안정성과 부로 가는 길이라는 인식은 지속되고 있습니다.

*show uSuccessful applicants may be disappointed once they show up for work, but the perception persists, among both aspirants and detractors, that being an official is the road to security and wealth (and if you’re lucky, Ferraris and mistresses).
show up for work: 일하러 가다/나오다

11

aspirant [əspaɪrənt 2, æspɪrənt 1]

detractor [dɪtræktər]2

mistress [mɪstrəs]1

Successful applicants may be disappointed once they show up for work, but the perception persists, among both aspirants and detractors, that being an official is the road to security and wealth (and if you’re lucky, Ferraris and mistresses).
[NOUN] [FORMAL] Someone who is an aspirant to political power or to an important job has a strong desire to achieve it.
[NOUN] [JOURNALISM] The detractors of a person or thing are people who criticize that person or thing.
[NOUN] [usu with poss] [OLD-FASHIONED] A married man's mistress is a woman who is not his wife and with whom he is having a sexual relationship.

12

사실, 그는 희망에 찬 지원자들 중 많은 이들이 기다리고 있는 것이 바로 무엇인지 보여주는 확 깨는 한 예라고 할 수 있습니다.

In fact, he is a sobering example of just what is awaiting many of those hopeful applicants.
*a sobering example [soʊbərɪŋ] [ADJ] You say that something is a sobering thought or has a sobering effect when a situation seems serious and makes you become serious and thoughtful.

13

bespectacled [bɪspektəkəld] 2

Mr Zhang (not his real name) is bespectacled.
[ADJ] [WRITTEN] Someone who is bespectacled is wearing glasses.

14

low-end

his mobile phone is a low-end Nokia.
*Low-end is an adjective that defines something cheap; inexpensive; low-cost etc.

15

27세인 장씨는 베이징의 남서쪽에 위치한 주의 수도인 샹시의 관료직의 말단에서 시작했습니다.

Mr Zhang, who is 27, is beginning his climb up the bureaucracy in the capital of a province, Shanxi, south-west of Beijing.
*climb up 시작점(최말단)

16

cushy [kʊʃi] 1

sinecure [sɪnɪkjʊər, saɪn-] 1

The jobs are hard to get, says Mr Zhang, but they are not the cushy sinecures that many assume.
[ADJ] [INFORMAL] A cushy job or situation is pleasant because it does not involve much work or effort.
[NOUN] A sinecure is a job for which you receive payment but which does not involve much work or responsibility.

17

command a ~ salary [kəmɑ:nd, -mænd]2

He commands a modest salary by urban standards in a city where a decent flat near his office rents for two-thirds that much.
*~의 연봉을 가져간다/번다.
[NOUN] [also N num] [mainly BRIT] A flat is a set of rooms for living in, usually on one floor and part of a larger building. A flat usually includes a kitchen and bathroom.

18

그는 억대 연봉을 번다.

He commands a 6-figure salary.
여섯자리 수 연봉

19

그가 보여주는 헌신과 외로움의 그림은 대중에게 비추어진 그림과는 정말 상반된 것을 보여줍니다.

his picture of dedication and loneliness stands in sharp contrast to the popular image.
*stand in sharp contrast to: ~과 정말 상반되다.

20

counter [kaʊntər] 1

Mr Zhang counters that he took the exam precisely so that he would not end up like the noodle-vendor.
[VERB] If you counter something that someone has said, you say something which shows that you disagree with them or which proves that they are wrong.

21

cadre [kɑ:dreɪ] 1

The chance is small, but Chinese culture is deeply influenced by official cadre culture.
[NOUN] A cadre is a small group of people who have been specially chosen, trained, and organized for a particular purpose.

22

rung [rʌŋ]

Of China’s 6.9m civil servants, about 900,000 are, like Mr Zhang, at the lowest official rung of government above entry-level.
[NOUN] [with supp] If you reach a particular rung in your career, in an organization, or in a process, you reach that level in it. 사다리 끝

23

많은 승진은 관계, 선물이나 말그대로 매관매직을 기반으로 이루어집니다.

Many promotions are handed out on the basis of relationships, gifts and the outright sale of offices.
*outright
[ADJ] [ADJ n] You use outright to describe behaviour and actions that are open and direct, rather than indirect.
*sale of offices: 매관매직

24

pad [pæd]

CV

Even when they compete for promotions on merit, some officials will pad their CVs with fake graduate degrees.
[VERB] If you pad something, you put something soft in it or over it in order to make it less hard, to protect it, or to give it a different shape. 뽕 넣다.
[NOUN] [mainly BRIT] Your CV is a brief written account of your personal details, your education, and the jobs you have had. You can send a CV when you are applying for a job. CV is an abbreviation for 'curriculum vitae'.
in AM, use résumé

25

roil [rɔɪl]

If college graduates knew what careers awaited them after the civil-service exam, they might reconsider the roiling seas of commerce.
[VERB] [mainly AM] If water roils, it is rough and disturbed.