Flashcards in The-2,000-year-old Wonder Drug Deck (25):
[ADJ] If someone or something is conspicuous, people can see or notice them very easily.
A New York City food truck is selling a $666 hamburger dubbed the “Douche Burger,” which contains lobster, caviar, truffles, and a beef patty wrapped in six sheets of gold leaf.
[VERB] [JOURNALISM] If someone or something is dubbed a particular thing, they are given that description or name.
Theoretically, you could eat your fill of 24-karat gold without falling ill.
inert [ɪnɜ:rt] 2
Pure gold is chemically inert.
[ADJ] [TECHNICAL] An inert substance is one which does not react with other substances.
Non-edible gold leaf, which is used for gilding, sometimes contains copper, which can be toxic in high doses.
[VERB] If you gild a surface, you cover it in a thin layer of gold or gold paint.
THE inexorable rise in health care spending, as all of us know, is a problem.
[ADJ] [FORMAL] You use inexorable to describe a process which cannot be prevented from continuing or progressing.
But what’s truly infuriating, as we watch America’s medical bill soar, is that our conversation has focused almost exclusively on how to pay for that care, not on reducing our need for it.
[ADJ] Something that is infuriating annoys you very much.
zero in on
In the endless debate about “health care reform,” few have zeroed in on the practical actions we should be taking now to make Americans healthier.
*to fix all your attention on somebody/something
mandate [mændeɪt] 1
In the last several years, he’s changed the city’s health code to mandate restrictions on sodas and trans fats — products that, when consumed over the long term, harm people.
[NOUN] [oft N for n, N to-inf] If a government or other elected body has a mandate to carry out a particular policy or task, they have the authority to carry it out as a result of winning an election or vote.
이러한 새로운 규칙들은 앞으로 뉴요커들의 건강을 의심할 여지 없이 향상시킬 것입니다.
These new rules will undoubtedly improve New Yorkers’ health in years to come.
*in years to come 앞으로=in years ahead
Such bold moves prompt a provocative question.
[ADJ] If you describe something as provocative, you mean that it is intended to make people react angrily or argue against it.
The answer, I suggest, is a two-parter:
*A day or situation that is uncharacteristically complicated, that takes a long time or a large amount of effort to resolve.
conversely kɒnvɜ:rsli, kənvɜ:rsli]1/ 2
first, when the scientific data clearly and overwhelmingly demonstrate that one behavior or another can substantially reduce — or, conversely, raise — a person’s risk of disease.
[ADV] [FORMAL] You say conversely to indicate that the situation you are about to describe is the opposite or reverse of the one you have just described.
by way of
and second, when all of us are stuck paying for one another’s medical bills (which is what we do now, by way of Medicare, Medicaid and other taxpayer-financed health care programs).
[ADJ] [v-link ADJ with n] If you are stuck with something that you do not want, you cannot get rid of it.
*passing through a place
analgesic [ænəldʒi:zɪk] 1 3
Developed in 1897 by the German chemist Felix Hoffmann, aspirin, or acetylsalicylic acid, has long proved its value as an analgesic.
[ADJ] [FORMAL] An analgesic drug reduces the effect of pain.
Two millenniums before that, Hippocrates, the father of modern medicine, used its active ingredient — which he extracted from the bark and leaves of the willow tree — to help alleviate pain and fevers.
*의도된 효과를 낼 수 있는 핵심 물질
[VERB] [FORMAL] If you alleviate pain, suffering, or an unpleasant condition, you make it less intense or severe.
gain insight into
Since then, we’ve gained insight into both the biological mechanism and the effects of this chemical compound.
*~에 대한 통찰, 식견을 갖게 되다.
bolster [boʊlstər] 1
In March, The Lancet published two more papers bolstering the case for this ancient drug.
[VERB] If someone tries to bolster their position in a situation, they try to strengthen it.
The first, reviewing five long-term studies involving more than 17,000 patients, found that a daily low-dose aspirin lowered the risk of getting adenocarcinomas — common malignant cancers that develop in the lungs, colon and prostate — by an average of 46 percent.
[ADJ] [usu ADJ n] [MEDICAL] A malignant tumour or disease is out of control and likely to cause death.악성의
The data are screaming out to us.
*(for something) to be very obvious or noticeable; to demand attention
And experts believe it helps prevent cancer, in part, by dampening an immune response called inflammation.
[VERB] To dampen something such as someone's enthusiasm or excitement means to make it less lively or intense.
[NOUN] [FORMAL] An inflammation is a painful redness or swelling of a part of your body that results from an infection, injury, or illness.
But with such caveats in place, it still ought to be possible to encourage aspirin’s use in those for whom the potential benefits would be obvious and the risks minimal.
[NOUN] A caveat is a warning of a specific limitation of something such as information or an agreement.
*prepared and ready
enlist [ɪnlɪst] 2
spread the word
Perhaps pharmacists or even health insurance companies should be enlisted to help spread the word about this disease-prevention drug?
[VERB] If someone enlists or is enlisted, they join the army, navy, marines, or air force.
*tell people about something
unequivocal [ʌnɪkwɪvəkəl] 1 3
Everyone may want the right to use tobacco products and engage in other behaviors that are unequivocally linked with disease.
[ADJ] [FORMAL] If you describe someone's attitude as unequivocal, you mean that it is completely clear and very firm.