Lecture 10: Behavioural therapies and applications Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 10: Behavioural therapies and applications Deck (29):
1

***What are the main ways to increase desired
behaviours?

1. Reinforcement (+/-)
2. shaping
3. prompting,
4. modeling
5. conditioning, etc

2

***What are the main ways to decrease
undesired behaviours?

1. Extinction
2. punishment (+/-),
3. counter-conditioning,
4. flooding,
5. DRO (differential reinforcement of other behaviour)/omission, etc

3

***What is the theoretical basis for:
– Systematic desensitisation
– Flooding

systematic desensitization
- counter-conditioning a fear response to a stimulus with deep relaxation response

flooding
- based on two-factor view of avoidance: classical conditioning and instrumental conditioning

4

some behaviours are reinforcing if they
are highly likely to be performed in a
situation.

premackian reinforcers

5

Some remarkable successes have been
reported with the use of __________ as reinforcers
(conditioned reinforcement)

token

6

why is using token reinforces successful?

1. Do not interfere with the behaviour,
2. Not subject to satiety,
3. Can be given immediately,
4. 'Universal reinforcers’ can cater to individual
tastes,
5. Portable

7

Lovaas (1967, 1977) used ___________ to
teach young autistic children to interact with
others and speak

operant principles

8

_____________ is due to a loss of
stimulus control over sleeping. Normal people
sleep well in their own beds (and not in others)

insomnia

9

what are the 2 forms that classical conditioning can interact?

1. implicit
2. explicit

10

an expectation that a particular event will
occur in a given situation

explicit

11

general states or reflexive reactions in
situations based on the occurrence of some event in
the past in a similar situation

implicit

12

explicit is used for

cognitive behavioural change

13

What theory is based on two factor theory that is used for avoidance

flooding

14

flooding is based on the two-factor view of avoidance
behaviour, what are they?

1. classical conditioning component
2. instrumental component

15

- Signal predicts the aversive event
- Signal comes to elicit fear

classical conditioning component

16

- Initially, response stops the aversive event
- Later, response removes the signal, reducing fear.

instrumental component

17

what must be done to treat avoidance?

1. The response must be blocked
2. The signal is then presented and the classically
conditioned fear allowed to extinguish

18

what are the ethical problems of control?

1. education
2. institutional care
3. mass marketing and easy credit

19

One way to avoid problems of feelings of
control or coercion is the ____________

behavioural contract

20

the return of the original problem with
time or a change in circumstances

relapse

21

the development of a new
behaviour derived from the original cause

symptom substitution

22

One popular criticism of behavioural therapies is
that ______________________

they don’t treat the underlying cause of the
behaviour

23

what is CBT (cognitive behaviour therapy)?

1. An acknowledgment of the role of internal
factors in behaviour
2. An importance on looking at how people
analyse and evaluate events
3.A look at how emotions and cognitions affect each other

24

what are the new ways of thinking that CBT teaches?

1. Cognitive restructuring
2. Avoid distortions
3. Teaching skills to manage emoti onal responses to
thoughts, and vice versa.

25

what are the 3 behaviours that is discussed in behvaioural analysis?

1. increasing behaviour
2. eliminating behaviour
3. maintaining behaviour

26

what are the ‘Behaviours that alter future behaviour?".

1. Stimulus control (e.g., studying),
2. Distraction (ignoring easy options),
3. Precommittment,
4 Self-reinforcement (reward self for achieving
targets)

27

Counter conditioning a fear response to a stimulus with a deep relaxation response

systematic desensitization

28

_________________ is driven by desires

psychoanalysis

29

fear of having a panic attack

agrophobia