Overview of the Pulmonary System/Lung Development Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Overview of the Pulmonary System/Lung Development Deck (56):
1

When does surfactant begin to be made in the lungs?

gestational month 6-7

1

Name the contributors to pulmonary work of breathing.

1. increased elastic properties of the lungs

2. resistance to flow in the airways

3. impaired gas exchange

2

Obstructive disease means _____; restrictive disease means ______.

you can't get air out; you can't get air in

3

What is the substance that lowers alveolar surface tension?

surfactant

4

Deadspace refers to parts of the lung that ______.

do not exchange gas

4

The ______ develops from the surrounding mesenchyme.

pulmonary circulation

4

What are the key features of the canalicular phase?

  • 17-26 weeks gestation
  • 1a development of pulm capillary bed
  • expansion of airspace into mesenchyme
  • fetal breathing detected
  • epi cell differentiation begins
  • possible to survive but respiratory distress

5

The overlapping stages in embryogenesis of the lung include the initial branching, called the embryonic phase (26 days to 6 weeks gestation), the pseudoglandular phase lasting through 16 weeks where ____ more rounds of branching to the terminal bronchioles occurs, and the cannicular phase where the terminal bronchioles branch into _______ (to age 28 weeks).

14; respiratory bronchioles

6

The first ____ airways are conducting airways; the rest are transitional and respiratory.

16

6

What is a normal, healthy FEV1?

70-80%

7

What are the key features of the saccular phase?

  • 26-36 weeks gestation
  • distal growth and branching of term sacs
  • thinning of interstitial space
  • decrease in cell prolif
  • epi cells are differentiated into Type I and II

8

Name the phase.

  • 17-26 weeks gestation
  • 1a development of pulm capillary bed
  • expansion of airspace into mesenchyme
  • fetal breathing detected
  • epi cell differentiation begins
  • possible to survive but respiratory distress

canalicular phase

9

Where do the pulmonary arteries originate?

the 6th aortic arch

10

Gas-exchange occurs at ______.

the capillary-alveolar interface

11

Lymphatics run near ______ to help cope with extravascular lung water.

the pulmonary arteries and veins

12

The overlapping stages in embryogenesis of the lung include the initial branching, called the _______ (26 days to 6 weeks gestation), the _______ lasting through 16 weeks where 14 more rounds of branching to the terminal bronchioles occurs, and the _______ where the terminal bronchioles branch into respiratory bronchioles (to age 28 weeks).

embryonic phase pseudoglandular phase cannicular phase

12

The lung bud develops ventrally into the mesoderm at _______.

week 4

12

What does FEV1 stand for? What does it mean?

it's the percentage of your vital capacity that you can exhale in 1 sec

13

_____ have two primary functions: 1) to repair or replace injured Type I pneumocytes, and 2) to secrete surfactant, a substance which lowers alveolar surface tension.

Type II cells

14

Name the phase.

  • 26-36 weeks gestation
  • distal growth and branching of term sacs
  • thinning of interstitial space
  • decrease in cell prolif
  • epi cells are differentiated into Type I and II

saccular phase

16

Since the conducting airways by definition do not exchange gas, they are known as "______."

anatomic deadspace

17

What is ventilation?

movement of air into/out of the lungs

19

Movement of the lungs within the thoracic cavity during inspiration and expiration is facilitated by a space between the two structures called _______.

the pleural space

19

_____ represents the transition from bronchi to bronchioles.

Loss of cartilage in the outer tissue layer

19

The lung bud develops _____ into the ______ at week 4.

ventrally; mesoderm

21

Surfactant is an _____ molecule.

amphipathic

23

The lungs develop from ______.

the lung bud of the gut tube endoderm

24

Type 1 pneumocytes are comprised of _____ cells.

simple squamous

25

_______ develop from the lung bud of the gut tube endoderm.

The lungs

26

Type II cells have two primary functions: 1) _______, and 2) to secrete surfactant, a substance which lowers alveolar surface tension.

to repair or replace injured Type I pneumocytes

27

Name the phase.

  • 36 weeks-3 years
  • presence of true alveoli (90% after birth)
  • Type II cells proliferate into type I cells

alveolar phase

28

What is the outer lining of the lung?

the visceral pleura

30

What is respiration?

gas exchange

30

What are the key features of the alveolar phase?

  • 36 weeks-3 years
  • presence of true alveoli (90% after birth)
  • Type II cells proliferate into type I cells
  • lengthening and sprouting of capillary network
  • fusion of double capillary network

30

What does FVC stand for? What does it mean?

force vital capacity; the maximal amount of air you can move out of your lungs from a maximal inspiration to a maximal expiration

31

If the FEV1/FVC ratio is lower than expected, that would suggest ______.

obstructive physiology

33

The respiratory system develops from the embryonic ______.

endoderm

34

The simple epithelium of the bronchioles gives way to two different types of alveolar epithelial cells, squamous lining cells (______) and secretory cells (______).

type I cells or pneumocytes; Type II cells

36

Type I cells account for _____ of the alveolar surface area and fuse with the capillary endothelium to create a sufficiently thin membrane for adequate gas transfer.

95%

37

The overlapping stages in embryogenesis of the lung include the initial branching, called the embryonic phase (days _____ thru _____), the pseudoglandular phase lasting through _____ weeks, where 14 more rounds of branching to the terminal bronchioles occurs, and the cannicular phase where the terminal bronchioles branch into respiratory bronchioles (to age _____).

26 days to 6 weeks gestation; 16 weeks; 28 weeks

38

What is DLCO?

a measure of gas exchange

39

On average there are _____ generations of airways in humans (from trachea to the last respiratory bronchiole).

23

40

______ refers to parts of the lung that do not exchange gas.

Deadspace

41

The pulmonary veins _______- they're more peripheral.

do not run with the airways

42

What are the conducting airway walls comprised of?

1. the inner mucosal surface (epithelial cells, cilia, and goblet cells) 2. the smooth muscle layer 3. the outer connective tissue layer

44

What is the job of surfactant?

to decrease the surface tension of water in the lungs and allow gas exchange from the air to the liquid in the lungs

45

______ account for 95% of the alveolar surface area and fuse with the capillary endothelium to create a sufficiently thin membrane for adequate gas transfer.

Type I cells

47

The pulmonary circulation develops from the surrounding ______.

mesenchyme

49

Disease such as bronchitis and bronchiectasis refer to ______ whereas bronchiolitis affects ______.

airways with cartilage; the bronchioles or non-cartilagenous airways

50

What is the visceral pleura?

the outer lining of the lung

51

What is surfactant?

a substance that lowers alveolar surface tension

52

A 55yo pt presents with a 2yr hx of dyspnea on exertion (DOE). What test will you do first?

measure lung function

53

The overlapping stages in embryogenesis of the lung include the initial branching, called the embryonic phase (26 days to 6 weeks gestation), the pseudoglandular phase lasting through 16 weeks where ____ more rounds of branching to the terminal bronchioles occurs, and the cannicular phase where the terminal bronchioles branch into _______ (to age 28 weeks).

14; respiratory bronchioles

54

What are the key features of the alveolar phase?

  • 36 weeks-3 years
  • presence of true alveoli (90% after birth)
  • Type II cells proliferate into type I cells

55

The pulmonary veins are outgrowths of ______.

the LA

56

The _____ develops ventrally into the mesoderm at week 4.

lung bud