Pharmacology Exam 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pharmacology Exam 4 Deck (57)
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31

How stretchy, how constricted, makes it harder for the blood to pump out how much it wants to pump

Peripheral resistance

32

How much blood does the average person have

5 liters

33

center in our brains in the medulla oblongata which regulate basebline BP, nerves travel from here out to the smooth muscle and can cause constriction

Vasomotor center

34

Nerves located in the walls of the atria, aortic arch, vena cava, and carotid sinus that sense changes in blood pressure

Baroreceptors

35

Nerves located in the aortic arch and carotid sinus that sense changes in oxygen content, pH, or carbon dioxide levels in the blood

Chemoreceptors

36

Hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland that conserves water... vasoconstrictor that stops you from putting out so much urine, conserve water, constrict vessels

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

37

Hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that increases sodium reabsorption in the distal tubule of the kidney

tells our bodies to hold on to/ retain sodium, which makes us hold onto water, which increases our BP

Aldosterone

38

Body mechanism for raising blood pressure initiated by the release of renin secreted by the kidney
Activates the angiotensin and its changed into angiotensin1--> angiotensin2--> aldosterone

Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system

39

A temporary increase in the heart rate that occurs when blood pressure falls

Reflex tachycardia

40

Lifestyle changes for HTN

Many doctors visits to find the right drugs for you

Learn to monitor your own BP and pulse

Stand slowly because dizziness may occur

Weigh yourself at the same time everyday and report weight gain of more than 2 lbs in a 24 hour period

41

Heart failure is..

When the heart is unable to pump an adequate amount of blood to meet the body’s metabolic needs

42

Heart failure occurs with _____ and can also be accelerated or caused by these 5 things

HF occurs with aging and can be caused by:
Coronary artery disease
Mitral stenosis
Myocardial infarction
Chronic hypertension
Diabetes mellitus

43

Plaque build up in the coronary arteries, which are the ones that wrap around our heart and feed it between beats

Coronary artery disease (CAD)

44

Valves gets hard and don’t close/seal very well so when pumping some goes backwards so there isn't enough moving forward to meet the bodies needs

Mitral stenosis

45

Damage to a heart muscle so some of the blood supply has been cut off because you lose the ability to pump

Myocardial infarction (MI)

46

The amount of blood pumped by each ventricle each minute

Cardiac output

47

The amount of blood that fills the heart just before systole which is when the ventricle contracts

Preload

48

The pressure in the aorta that must be overcome in order for the heart to eject blood

Afterload
**Hypertension increases the afterload because the heart has to work harder

49

A drug increases contractility of the heart
Makes the heart contract stronger, squeeze faster

Inotropic effect

50

Cells stretch and change and those are permanent changes, just hope for it not to get any worse

Cardiac remodeling

51

Swelling usually below the knees

Peripheral edema

52

When not enough blood reaches the heart
Can be caused by atherosclerosis
Can also be caused by spasms of the heart

Myocardial ischemia

53

Pain that comes from the heart when the heart isn’t getting enough oxygen

Angina pectoris

54

Usually felt when you're doing an activity, chopping wood for example, but goes away when you stop

Stable angina

55

Angina caused by spasms

Vasospastic or Prinzmetal

56

Angina that occurs at rest as well as activities

Unstable angina

57

When you don’t feel any pain but go to the hospital and see that you have had a heart attack

Silent angina