Flashcards in Set 11 Carbs and Lipids Deck (55):
How many kcal/g in carbs?
What % of diet should come from carbs?
what is a ketone?
multiple hydroxyl groups
Sugars with one or two single sugars:
What is sorbitol?
surar alcohol from glucose
How are carbohydrates oxidized?
citric acid cycle
How are excess carbs stored?
glycogen or FA stored as triglycerides in adipose
What raises blood glucose levels?
glucagon, epinepherine, glucocorticoids, thyroxine, and growth hormone
What lowers blood glucose levels?
What are the catabolic pathways for carbs?
glycolysis, pyruvate oxidation, citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation "the Big 4"
What are the two forms of carbs?
starch and sugars
What kind of bonds are found in carbs?
Which is digestible, alpha or beta?
What bond is straight chain?
Which bond is branched?
What monosacs have 6 carbons?
glucose and fructose
What monosacs have 5 carbons?
What carbs have a1-4 bonds?
maltose, amylose, amylopectin*, and glycogen* (*-also have a1-6)
What makes maltose?
glucose + glucose
What makes lactose?
glucose + galactose
What makes sucrose?
glucose + fructose
What bond is found in cellulose?
What is cellulose?
non-digestible fiber found in plants
What is the best source for amylose?
Where is glycogen stored?
liver and muscles
What is the difference between amylopectin and glycogen?
amylopectin has less frequent, but longer branches.
What do non-cellulose polysaccharides do?
absorb water, swell, slow emptying of food, bind bile acids to cholesterol
What is lignin?
only non-carb dietary fiber, from the woody part of a plant
How are carbs broken down in the mouth?
ptyalin breaks starch->dextrin->maltose
Are carbs digested in the stomach?
Where are carbs broken down?
little in mouth, mostly in SI
What is oxidation?
What is reduction?
How many kcal/g in lipids?
What bond is between glycerol and fatty acids?
What is a saturated fatty acid?
no double bonds, solid at room temp
What are sources of saturated fatty acids?
lard, butter, coconut and palm oil
What is a monounsaturated fatty acid?
one C=C, liquid at room temp
What are sources of monounsaturated fatty acids?
olive oil, olives, peanuts, peanut oil, canola oil, almonds, pecans, and avocado
What is a polyunsaturated fatty acid?
more than one C=C, liquid at room temp
What are sources of polyunsaturated fatty acid?
sunflower oil, corn oil, cottonseed oil, soybean oil, linoleic and ALA
What are the essential fatty acids?
linoleic and linolenic
When does arachidonic acid become essential?
when linoleic is absent from the diet
What is the numbering for arachodonic acid?
What is the numbering for linolenic acid?
What is the numbering for linoleic acid?
What is the numbering for EPA?
What is a triglyceride?
3 FAs + glycerol
What is a phospholipid?
2 FAs + glycerol + phosphate derivative
Where are phospholipids found?
all cell membranes
What does cholesterol require?
ATP, Mg, and NADPH
What is cholesterol used for?
make cell membranes, bile salts, and steroid hormones
What does the liver do with cholesterol?
coverts it to bile, bile emulsifies fat
What do we call a mixture of fat and bile?