Set 14 Chemistry Cycles Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Set 14 Chemistry Cycles Deck (63):
1

What does 1 turn of glycolysis make?

2 pyruvate, 2 ATP, and 2 NADH

2

What stimulates glycolysis?

AMP and insulin

3

What inhibits glycolysis?

citrate, ketone bodies, free FAs, ATP, cAMP, and low pH

4

Where does glycolysis and the Pentose Phosphate Pathway occur?

cytosol

5

What are the substrates for gluconeogenesis?

lactate, glycerol, glucogenic AAs

6

What is the product of gluconeogenesis?

glucose

7

What stimulates gluconeogenesis?

cortisol, epinepherine, norepinepherine, ATP, and glucagon (slight)

8

What inhibits gluconeogenesis?

insulin, AMP, ADP, high blood glucose

9

Where does gluconeogenesis take place?

cytoplasm and mitochondria of the liver

10

What is the substrate for glycogenesis?

UDP-glucose (one pentose and one glucose)

11

What is the product of glycogenesis?

glycogen

12

What stimulates glycogenesis?

insulin

13

What inhibits glycogenesis?

glucagon and epinepherine (less of an effect)

14

Where do glycogenesis and glycogenolysis take place?

cytoplasm of the liver and muscle

15

What is the product of glycogenolysis?

glucose 1 phosphate

16

What stimulates glycogenolysis?

cortisol, epinepherine, norepinepherine, and glucagon

17

What inhibits glycogenolysis?

insulin

18

What is the substrate of lipogenesis?

excess glucose

19

What stimulates lipogenesis?

insulin, ATP

20

What inhibits lipogenesis?

epinepherine and glucagon

21

Where do lipogenesis, lipolysis, and cholesterol synthesis take place?

liver

22

What is the product of lipolysis?

ketone bodies

23

What stimulates lipolysis?

epinepherine, norepinepherine, glucagon, GH, and caffiene

24

What inhibits lipolysis?

insulin, FAs

25

What stimulates cholesterol synthesis?

NADPH

26

What inhibits cholesterol synthesis?

presence of cholesterol

27

What is the product of the pentose phosphate pathway?

5-C sugar: ribulose-5-phosphate

28

What stimulates the pentose phosphate pathway?

NADP, build new cells and fat

29

What inhibits the pentose phosphate pathway?

NADPH, ribose, AMP, and ADP

30

What is the opposite of insulin?(in regards to effect)

epinepherine and glucagon

31

What is the pre-Kreb's step?

Oxidative decarboxylation of Pyruvate -> acetyl CoA

32

What does the pre-Kreb step require?

Thiamine pyrophosphate / FAD / CoA / Lipoic Acid / NAD (the five coenzymes love nutrition

33

What are the products of the pre-Kreb step?

Acetyl CoA, NADH, and Co2

34

What are the other names for the Kreb's cycle?

citric acid cycle and tricarboxylic acid cycle

35

Where does the Kreb's cycle take place?

mitochondria

36

Is Kreb's aerobic or anaerobic?

aerobic

37

What are the products for one turn of the Kreb's cycle?

2 CO2, 3 NADH, 1 FADH2, 1 GTP/ATP

38

How many total ATPs do we get from Kreb's?

30

39

How many total ATPs do we get from Glycerol-3-phosphate shunt?

4

40

How many total ATPs do we get from glycolysis?

2

41

How many total ATPs do we get?

36 (if not available, choose 38)

42

What are the antioxidants?

ACE, selenium and zinc & chromium

43

What is the function of antioxidants?

decrease free radicals, thus reducing cancer cell production

44

What is the function of Vitamin E?

synergystic with selenium

45

What is selenium a cofactor for?

glutathione perioxidase

46

What do zinc and chromium help decrease?

oxidative stress with type II diabetes

47

Where is lutein found?

green leafy veggies (good for your eyes)

48

Where is lycopene found?

tomatoes, watermelons, and papayas

49

What can interfere with the ETC?

cyanide poisoning and carbon monoxide

50

Rice and wheat are missing which AA?

lysine

51

Legumes are missing which AA?

methionine

52

Corn is missing which AAs?

lysine and tryptophan

53

What are enantiomers?

mirror images

54

What are stereoisomers?

atoms in the same order, differ in precise orientation

55

What are epimers?

sugar differing in configuration at a single asymmetric center

56

How do we identify bile salts?

they end in cholic acid or cholate

57

What does too much uric acid cause?

gout

58

What is the isoelectric point

When the charge of AA or protein are neutral

59

In glycolysis what is the allosteric enzyme?

Phosphofructokinase
(In muscles its Hexokinase)

60

ETC is also known as what

Cytochrome series and respiratory chain

61

What is the final electron acceptor in the ETC

Oxygen to form water

62

Where is the ETC located

In the inner fold of the inner mitochondrial membrane

63

How many ATPs come from NADPH and from FADH2

NADH -3
FADH2 -2