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Flashcards in Set I Deck (55):
1

What does the ectoderm give rise to?

all neurons and supporting cells

2

What does the notochord induce?

the ectoderm to become the neuroectoderm

3

What is the remnant of the notochord?

nucleus pulposus of the IVD

4

What does the ectoderm form?

the neural plate

5

What does the neural plate form?

the neural groove which houses the spinal cord and brain vesicles

6

What does the neural crest develop into?

branchial arches, PNS, schwann cells, pia and arachnoid, sacral parasympathetics, sensory and autonomic ganglia, mesencephalic nucleus of V, melanocytes, bones and CT of head, DRG, Ganglia of CN V, VII, IX, and X, and adrenal gland medulla

7

What does the neural plate develop into?

macroglial cells: oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, neurons of the CNS, ependymal cells, and retinal cells (MOANER)

8

What does the endoderm epithelium form?

the lining of the digestive tube and its associated structures

9

What are the parts of the primitive gut?

foregut, midgut, hindgut, and allantois

10

What makes up the foregut?

glands, buccal cavity, esophagus, stomach, pharyngeal pouches and pharynx

11

What makes up the midgut?

duodenum, jejunum, appendix, and part of the transverse colon

12

What makes up the hindgut?

part transverse, sigmoid and descending colon, rectum and upper anal canal

13

What makes up allantois?

urinary bladder, vagina, urethra, prostate, and urethral glands

14

What do somite cells form?

the sclerotome

15

What does the sclerotome become?

vertebral column (cartilage and bone)

16

Where is the foramen ovale located?

between the interarterial septum

17

What does foramen ovale become?

fossa ovalis

18

Where is the ductus arteriosus located?

bypasses pulmonary trunk to arch of aorta

19

What does ductus arteriosus become?

ligamentum arteriosum

20

Where is the dectus venosus located?

bypasses sinusoids of fetal liver

21

What does dectus venosus become?

becomes ligamentum venosum

22

Where is the umbilical vein located?

ligamentum teres

23

What does umbilical arteries become?

medial umbilical ligaments

24

What is urachus?

duct of allantois

25

What do glioblasts give rise to?

astrocytes and oligodendrocytes

26

What is the most numerous cell of the CNS?

astrocyte

27

What are astrocytes?

most numerous cells of the CNS, acts like CT, part of the BBB, form scar like tissue in injury

28

What do oligodendrocytes form?

myelin

29

What are ependymal cells?

they line the CNS, ciliated, and create a "leaky" barrier between the CSF and CNS

30

What are microglia?

phagocyte, neural tube cells, lesser in number

31

What is the function of neuroblasts?

to make neurons

32

What are the three types of internuncial neurons?

commissural, association, and projection

33

What are commissural neurons?

between the two hemispheres of the brain

34

What are association neurons?

between different parts of the same hemisphere

35

What are projection neurons?

from lower centers to cerebral cortex

36

What is the most common neurons of the CNS?

multipolar

37

What are cell bodies and dendrites made of?

gray matter

38

What are myelinated axons made of?

white matter

39

What does the prosencephalon give rise to?

telencephalon and diencephalon

40

What does the telencephalon become?

forebrain

41

What cranial nerve is associated with the telencephalon?

I

42

What are the neural canal regions of the telencephalon?

lateral ventricles separated by septum pellucidum

43

What does the diencephalon become?

thalamus, hypothalamus, pineal, retina, mamillary body and posterior pituitary

44

What cranial nerve is associated with the diencephalon?

II

45

What are the neural canal regions of the diencephalon?

foramen of monroe (intraventicular foramen) (1st and 2nd to 3rd ventricle)

46

What does the mesencephalon become?

midbrain

47

What cranial nerves are associated with the mesencephalon?

III and IV

48

What are the neural canal regions of the mesencephalon?

cerebral aqueduct of Sylvius

49

What does the rhombencephalon give rise to?

metencephalon and myencephalon

50

What does the metencephalon become?

Pons and cerebellum

51

What cranial nerves are associated with the metencephalon?

V, VI, VII, VIII

52

What are the neural canal regions of the metencephalon?

4th ventricle

53

What does the meyencephalon become?

medulla oblongata

54

What cranial nerves are associated with the meyencephalon?

IX, X, XI, and XII

55

What are the neural canal regions of the meyencephalon?

4th ventricle