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Flashcards in Set 2 Deck (51):
1

What are the two parts of the cerebral cortex?

neocortex and allocortex

2

What % of the cerebral cortex is made of the neocrotex?

90%

3

What is found in the neocortex?

six cerebral cortex laminae (mostly synaptic activity)

4

What is the diencephalon mostly formed by?

thalamus

5

What is the function of the diencephalon?

relay for cortex, processes sensory info, sleep, consciousness, and a motor relay

6

What is the function of the basal ganglia?

postural adjustments, steadying voluntary movements, and enkephalins

7

What do striatal lesions of the basal ganglia cause?

tremors (ex: Parkinson's, Hunington's chorea, and ballism)

8

What is included in the basal ganglia?

corpus striatum, amygaloid nucleus, and claustrum

9

What is the brainstem made up of?

medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain

10

What is the brainstem conduit for?

ascending and descending tracts

11

Where are the reflex centers for respiration, cardiovascular, and consciousness located?

the brainstem

12

What CN nuclei are found in the brainstem?

CN III - XII

13

What does CSF taste like?

sweet

14

What are the meninges from inside out?

pia, arachnoid, dura (PAD)

15

What space is a spinal tap accessing?

subarachnoid space

16

What is the innermost layer of the neural tube made up of?

ependymal cells

17

What produces CSF?

choroid plexus

18

Where is CSF resorbed?

arachnoid granulations

19

How many pairs of spinal nerves are there?

31 pairs

20

What is the function of dorsal nerve roots?

sensory (afferent)

21

What is the function of ventral nerve roots?

motor (efferent)

22

Where does the spinal cord terminate?

L1-L2

23

What do we call the end of the spinal cord?

conus medullaris

24

What is the cauda equina?

roots for lumbar, sacral and coccygeal nerves through the lumbar cistern

25

What is the midbrain composed of?

tectum and peduncles

26

What is the function of the cerebral aqueduct of Sylvius?

CSF exchange between 3rd and 4th ventricles

27

What makes up the cerebral peduncles?

substansia nigra, tegmentum, crus cerebri, and CN III and IV nuclei

28

What is the function of the substansia nigra?

dopamine created from tyrosine and melanin is the by-product (causing dark color)

29

What fibers are included in the crus cerebri?

corticospinal, corticopontine, corticobulbar, and corticomesencaphalic (eye movement)

30

What is the function of the cerebellum?

integration of "momentary" static muscle contraction, joint tension, visual and auditory input regarding equilibrium

31

Where is the vermis found?

medial cerebellum

32

Where is the paleocerebellar cerebellum found?

anterior

33

What is the function of the paleocerebellar cerebellum?

general muscle tone

34

Where is the neocerebellar cerebellum found?

posterior

35

What is the function of the neocerebellar cerebellum?

coordination of skilled movements

36

What is the function of the archicerebellar cerebellum?

equilibrium

37

What is another name for the archicerebellar cerebellum?

flocculonodular

38

What is another name for the white matter of the cerebellum?

corpus medullare

39

What fibers are found in the corpus medullare?

afferent, efferent, commissural, and association fibers

40

What types of neurons are found in the gray matter of the cerebellum?

purkinje, golgi II, stellate, basket, and granular

41

What is the blood supply to the cerebellum?

branches of the vertebral and basilar arteries

42

What are the cerebellar nuclei from medial to lateral and small to large?

fastigial, globus, emboliform, and dentate (FGED, flowers grow every day)

43

What is the function of the thalamus?

crude sensation and integrations "relay center"

44

What is the function of the cortex?

conscious interpretation and movement

45

What is the main pathway between the thalamus and cortex?

through the internal capsule and corona radiata

46

The postcentral gyrus is the primary __________ cortex

sensory

47

The precentral gyrus is the primary __________ cortex

motor

48

What are the descending tracts?

lateral corticospinal and anterior corticospinal, rubrospinal, vestibulospinal, tectospinal, Reticulospinal (pontine & medullary)

49

What are the ascending tracts?

posterior columns (Fasciculus and gracilis), posterior & anterior horns, dorsal & ventral spinocerebellar, lateral & and ventral spinothalamic , spinotectal, spinoreticular

50

What will an upper motor neuron lesion cause?

+deep tendon reflex, +muscle tone, +pathlogical reflex (Babinski), spasticity, hypertrophy, clonus, -superficial reflexes (bilateral)

51

What will an lower motor neuron lesion cause?

-deep tendon reflex, -muscle tone, no pathological reflexes, flaccidity, atrophy, fasiculations (muscle tremor), and -superficial reflexes (unilateral)