Set 36 Pathology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Set 36 Pathology Deck (32):
1

What are the three types of arteriosclerosis?

Monckeberg, Obliterans, Peripheral

2

Monckenburg arteriosclerosis:

calcified tunica media, medium sized arteries

3

Obliterans arterioslcerosis:

proliferation intima, small vessels, obliterates artery

4

Peripheral arteriosclerosis:

in extremities

5

What is an aortic aneurysm?

localized dilation of the aorta

6

What is a dissecting aneurysm?

longitudinal cleavage of the arterial media by a column of blood "tearing pain"

7

Where is the most common dissecting aneurysm?

abdominal aorta

8

Where does a Berry aneurysm take place?

Circle of Willis (anterior communicating)

9

What is a berry aneurysm?

subarachnoid and intracerebral hemorrhage, hereditary, Circle of Willis (anterior communicating)

10

What is occipital throbbing headaches in the morning a sign of?

hypertension

11

What % of people have BP of over 140/90?

50%

12

What are the 4 types of HBP?

essential (idiopathic), secondary, benign, malignant

13

Essential HBP:

idiopathic

14

Secondary HBP:

sodium retention, and ^ peripheral resistance

15

Benign HBP:

earliest phase of hypertension

16

Malignant HBP:

papilledema, fibrinoid necrosis of tunica media, acute ischemia

17

Hypertensive heart disease:

systemic hypertension, increased work for left ventricle, causes hypertrophy and eventual failure

18

Patent ductus arteriosus:

congenital failure of closure between the pulmonary artery and aorta

19

What is the effect of rheumatic fever on the heart?

mitral and aortic valves affected, mitral valve typically involved first

20

Microcytic hypochormic anemia:

iron deficiency in women, childbearing years, chronic hemorrhage

21

Macrocytic normochromic:

pernicious: low B12 absorption, posterolateral sclerosis, loss of parietal cells (in old age)

22

Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy:

(most common form of non-ischemic cardiomyopathy), gradual cardiac failure with hypertrophy/dilation of the heart, causes: viral myocarditis(cox sackie), hemochromatosis, chornic anemia, alcoholism, sarcoidosis, amd 3rd tri pregnancy

23

Hypertrophic diastolic disorder:

hyper muscular hyper-contracting heart, causes: congenital, friedreich's ataxia, glycogen storage disease, infants of diabetic mothers

24

Restrictive diastolic disorder:

diastole and LV filling impeded, causes: amyloidosis, radiation-induced fibrosis, found in children

25

Over 10 mins, rule out:

myocardial infarction

26

Types of Angina:

typical/stable, unstable/crescendo, prinzmetal

27

typical angina caused by:

activity, emotional excitement, increased cardiac work

28

unstable angina caused by:

close to myocardial infarction, increased frequency, prolonged duration

29

prinzmetal angina caused by:

occurs at rest, coronary artery spasm

30

What are myocardial infarctions?

ischemic heart disease

31

transmural infarct:

full or nearly full thickness of ventricular wall

32

subendocardial infarct:

inner 1/3 or at most 1/2 of ventricular wall