Text Chapters 6 and 25: Cellular Reproduction Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Text Chapters 6 and 25: Cellular Reproduction Deck (69):
1

Interphase

chromatin is diffuse, individual chromosomes cannot be distinguished

2

Mitosis

nuclear division retaining the original chromosome number

3

Meiosis

nuclear division reducing the chromosome number, leading to sperm or eggs

4

Cytokinesis

cytoplasmic division

5

Prophase

chromosomes condense, spindle forms, nucleolus disappears, nuclear envelope breaks down, each chromosome appears as a pair of chromatids attached at their centromeres

6

Metaphase

chromatid pairs align at the cell equator

7

Anaphase

sister chromatids separate and are drawn to opposite poles by spindle fibers

8

Telophase

chromosomes have reached poles of a cell, spindle disperses, nuclear envelope surrounds chromosomes, chromosomes becomes diffuse, nucleolus forms

9

Chromosome

a packaged and organized structure containing most of the DNA of a living organism

10

Chromatid

one copy of a duplicated chromosome, which is generally joined to the other copy by a single centromere

11

Centromere

the part of a chromosome that links sister chromatids

12

Crossing Over

homologous pairs exchange genetic information (chromosomes with combinations of maternal and paternal traits)

13

Spindle

a group of parallel threads stretching across the cell between its two ends (poles), where they connect to each pole at the centriole

14

Homologous Pair

diploids have pairs of chromosomes, each homologous pair is genetically matched so that the genes are arranged in the same order

15

Meiosis I

reduction division, separation of homologous chromosomes into two different nuclei, chromosome number reduced to haploid, crossing over occurs

16

Meiosis II

equational division, duplicated chromosomes separate, no change in chromosome number

17

Three Sources of Genetic Variation Related to Sexual Reproduction

alleles come from two parents, crossing over, reassortment of homologues

18

Cell Type at Start (Mitosis)

diploid

19

Cell Type at End (Mitosis)

diploid

20

Are Products Identical? (Mitosis)

yes

21

Number of Chromosome Duplications Prior to (Mitosis)

one

22

Pairing of Homologues (Mitosis)

no

23

Crossing Over (Mitosis)

no

24

Number of Chromosome Divisions (Mitosis)

one

25

Cell Type at Start (Meiosis)

diploid

26

Cell Type at end (Meiosis)

haploid

27

Are Products Identical? (Meiosis)

no

28

Number of Chromosome Duplications Prior to (Meiosis)

four

29

Pairing of Homologues (Meiosis)

yes

30

Crossing Over (Meiosis)

yes

31

Number of Chromosome Divisions (Meiosis)

two

32

Haploid

one set of chromosomes (n)

33

Diploid

two sets of chromosomes (2n)

34

Sister Chromatids

two identical chromatids attached at a centromere

35

Non-Sister Chromatids

either of the two chromatids of any of the paired homologous chromosomes (a paternal chromosome and a maternal chromosome)- exchange genetic material during meiosis

36

Synapsis

pairing of homologous chromosomes that occurs during prophase 1 of meiosis

37

Chiasma(ta)

the point where two homologous chromatids exchange genetic material during chromosomal crossover during meiosis- sister chromatids form chiasmata, non-sister chromatids for chiasma

38

Sperm Production

equal divisions of cytoplasm, four function products per meiosis

39

Egg Production

unequal divisions of cytoplasm, small polar bodies formed, one functional product per meiosis

40

Bulbourethral Gland

mucus secretion, movement of sperm

41

Epididymis

7-meter-long coiled tube, stores sperm for up to three months

42

Penis

has three columns of tissue that can become engorged with blood and lead to an erection

43

Prostate Gland

contributes alkaline fluide to neutralize acidic female reproductive tract

44

Scrotum

sac containing the two testes

45

Seminal Vesicle

makes fructose (sperm energy), prostaglandins (local hormone, stimulates muscle contraction in women)

46

Seminiferous Tubules

produces gametes

47

Testes

site of sperm production

48

Urethra

runs from the bladder, through the prostate, and out the shaft of the penis

49

Vas Deferens

place where the sperm move through during intercourse

50

Acrosome

contains enzymes that break down protective layers surrounding an egg

51

Head

contains the nucleus with the DNA

52

Middle Piece (body)

contains many energy-generating mitochondria

53

Tail

flagellum which propels the sperm

54

Ovary

where eggs are produced- diploid cells undergo meiosis to produce haploid eggs

55

Fallopian Tube

connects to the top of the uterus on both sids, ovulated oocyte moves through it

56

Uterus

also called the womb, where an embryo develops throughout pregnancy

57

Vagina

tube-like chamber into which sperm are released during intercourse

58

Clitoris

provides pleasure

59

Follicle

the small structure in which and egg will form

60

Corpus Luteum

a yellowish mass composed of the follicular cells remaining in the ovary which secrete progesterone and estrogen

61

GnRH

from hypothalamus, stimulates the pituitary to release FSH and LH

62

FSH

follicle stimulating hormone, influences follicle maturation, egg is developed within follicle

63

LH

luteinizing hormone, stimulates ovulation

64

Testosterone

stimulates sperm production

65

Estrogen

causes the regeneration of the endometrium, when estrogen levels drop, the pituitary releases FSH

66

Progesterone

thickens the endometrium (lining of the uterus) in preparation for a embryo

67

Ovulation

Triggered by a sudden ovulatory surge of LH (which ruptures the
dominant follicle), the cell (oocyte) that will become the egg is released from the ovary
into the abdominal cavity

68

Fertilization

the process that fuses an ovum with a sperm, eventually leading to the development of an embryo

69

Implantation

the very early stage of pregnancy at which the conceptus (blastocyst) adheres to the wall of the uterus