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Flashcards in Unit 16 Deck (53):
1

what is the most common ca in women

breast

2

et of breast ca

mutation of gene rt cell prolif

3

risk fact for breast ca 4

aging
genetic predispostion
inhereted gene def
hormones

4

how is aging a risk for breast ca

inc risk in older women rt to cumulativie exposure

5

how is genetic predisp a risk for breast ca

pt has inc susceptibility to risks, no identifiable gene

6

how many women does inherited gene def affect

5-10 out of every 100

7

what percent of the 5-10 out of every 100 women have an inherited gene that they pass onto offspring

75

8

what are the 2 inhereited gene defs in brst ca

brca1 on chr 17
brca2 on chr 13

9

what type of genes are brca1 and 2

tumor supressing genes

10

how do brca1 and 2 pass onto offpsring

autosomal dominatn

11

what hormone issue is the most important when looking at breast ca risks

excessive in the absense of P after menopause

12

when is E given to women without P

after menopause, normally given to tx the sudden drop in E prod by ovary to dec SEs of women

13

which conditions may lead to prolonged E exposure in women

early menarche, late menopause

14

how is early menarche determiend

based on population norms

15

what other 'condition' may lead to inc E exposure lt inc bc risk

nulliparity

16

why is nulliparity a risk for bc

uninterupted and repeated meneses means continuous E prod

17

what things break the E cycle

pregnancy
lactation
bc pill

18

where does 48% of bc occcur

near tail of spenec in outter upper q of breast

19

after tail of spence, in what areas does bc have inc incidence in

areola, UIQ, LOQ, ILQ

20

2 main types of bc

ductal carcinoma in situ
infiltrating ductal carcinoma

21

what type of cells are involved in ductal carcinoma in situ

inc in epith cells

22

"in situ" when speaking about ductal carcinomas

restricted, remains in site of origin, non invasive, good prognosis

23

what fraction of all bc does ductal carcinoma in situ make up

1/5

24

site of orgin of ductal carcinoma in situ

intraductal

25

stage O in ductal carcinoma in situ

early stage that can progress to infiltrating ductal carcinoma if left untx

26

where does infiltrating ductal carcinoma arise from

alone or from ductal carcinoma in situ

27

what percent of bc does infiltrating ductal carcinoma make up

75%

28

origin of infiltrating ductal carcionma

ductal origin

29

what type of mass is in infiltrating ductal carcinoma

solid, irregular mass

30

what are the 2 types of mets that arise from infiltrating ductal carcinoma

proximal
distal

31

proximal mets in infiltrating ductal carcinoma

spreads short distance, axilla via lymph v

32

distal mets in infiltrating dutal carcinoma

liver, bone, brain, via blood

33

what does infiltrating ductal carcinoma do to breast tissue

destroys it

34

what percent of bc is identified by pt

60-75%

35

what mass is usually identifed by the pt

unilateral, immobile, hard, painless mass usually in uoq

36

late mnfts of breast ca

nipple discharge and retraction
breast edema

37

dx bc

px hx
mammography

38

mammography

xray that can detect early tumors

39

issues with mammograms

may have false + or -
limitations of age and freq of exams

40

what happens if a mammogram is positiveee

biopsy to determine if its malignant or benign
remove mass

41

what cell receptors do they look at in cell biopsys from bc

E and P

42

what does the number of E and P receptors on a cell determine

how dependent a cell is on E and P

43

why is e and p dependency helpful

we want to know what these malignant cells are receptive to

44

tx for bc

combo
H therapy with combo
sx
radition
chemo

45

when do we use H thearpy to tx bc

if e and p receptor levels are inc on cell

46

if E > P in cell r eceptors, what tx do we use

anti estrogen
inc dose of E without any P
androgens

47

eg of an antiestrogen

tamoxefin

48

why will inc an E dose without P tx E>P breast ca

inc E will down regulate the number of receptors for that H. Inc e -> damage to receptors killing them

49

if P>E what tx do we use

progestins

50

3 sx used in bc

lumpetctomy
qaudrectomy
mastectomy

51

where do we radiate in bc

breast and axilla

52

when do we use chemo in breast ca

pre and post sx, circumstantially

53

what is prognosis of bc bsaed on

node involvement. a whole infected breast has better prognosis then a bit of breast and some lymph node