Unit 19 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 19 Deck (89):
1

how do stds spread

genitals, mouth, rectum, skin, placenta

2

viral/recurring stds

herpes, warts, aids

3

bact/elimanted stds

syph, clap, gonorhea, chancroid

4

high risk practice

multi partners, unsafe/high risk sex practice
drug abuse
medically underserved
prior stds
non compliant std tx

5

low risk or no risk practice

monogomy
abstinence

6

genital herpes

recurrent, systemic, viral infc

7

what virus causes gential herpes

herpes simplex type 2

8

what virus causes cold sores

herpes simplex type 1

9

what type of microbe is herpes

neurotropic

10

neurotropic microbes

attack host cells ganglia

11

how does herpes spread

contact with shedding leisions or vaginal sec

12

incubation herpes

2-10 days

13

when do mnfts appear in herpes

3-7 days post contact with apperance of lesions

14

mnfts of herpes lesions

pain, burning at site (internal in women)

15

systemic mnfts of herpes

fever, m ache

16

when may a herpes virus become subclinical

if virus is latent

17

major problem with herpes

reoccurence

18

tx for herpes

no cure, symptom tx, anti viral for flare ups

19

which hpv strains have inc incidence in warts

6,11

20

characteristics of warts

beningn, neoplastic growth. short stock lesion with multi heads

21

incubation for warts

1-2 mo

22

cure for wart

no

23

tx for warts

removal
topical drugs
sx
cryosx
monitor for ca
vaccine to prevent hpv?

24

what types of topical drugs are used in warts

cytotoxic or antimyotic

25

what strains of hpv may cause ca

16 and 18

26

name of syph bact

treponema pallidum

27

how does syph spread

contact with leasions and across placenta at 16 wks gest

28

incuation syph

10-90 days

29

how does syph spread

microbe divides and spreads systemically

30

comp of syph

blindness, paralysis, hd, death

31

1 stage of syph

bact introduced.
painless chancre (ulcrative bleeding)
reginal lympahdenopathy

32

how long does it take for a painless chancre in 1st stage syph to heal

3-12 weeks

33

2nd stage of syph

appearance of further lesions

34

when does 2nd stage syph begin

6-8 weeks post infc

35

mnfts of 2nd stage syph

macupapular rashes (white, pimple like) on palms and soles
white patches on mucous membs and tongue
flat papules
generalized and progressed lymphadenopathy
fever and malaise
latencyup to 50 yrs

36

when does 3rd stage of syph occur

1-35 years after primary infc

37

what happens in the 3rd stage of syph

irreversiable damage to bone, joints, cvs, ns,

38

what is important to remember about 3rd stage syph

we can eradicate syph bact but disease process is permanent. infc is systemic

39

tx for syph

long acting penicillin

40

why do we use long acting penicillin in syph

bact is spirochete shape - these bact have inc generation time of approx 30h. we need abx to last in system for duration of this time

41

bact name for clap

chlamyida trachomatis

42

characteristics of clap

gram -, tiny, hard to detect bacteria

43

what percent of clap is asymptomiatic

50

44

mnfts clap in male

white or clear urethral discharge
mild dysuria rt pain in urethra
testicular pain within scrotum rt inflm of epididymis

45

mnfts of clap in female

mucopurulent vaginal dc plus cervical mucous
dysuria
bleeding
pelvic pain + PID

46

tx for clap

abx, doxycycline. azithromycin

47

bact name for gonorrhea

neisseria gonnorrhea

48

incubation of gono

3-8 days

49

mnfts of gono in female

purulent, vaginal dc
dysuria, genital irritation, late pelvic pain rt PID

50

mnfts of gono in male

urethral dc, dysuria

51

systemic mnfts of gono (m and f)

bacteremia
pharygneal infc rt oral sex
conjunctivitis rt contaminated hands touching eyes
arthritis dermatits syndrome/ septic arthritis

52

mnfts of arthritis dermatis

swollen,painful joints

53

tx gono

1st line: abx (cephalosporins)
2nd line: inc dose plus add another class of antibiotics

54

AIDS

infc rt HIV

55

incubation of HIV

varying

56

what does hiv target

IR and T helper cells

57

what happens when IR is targetted

inc immunesuppression -> opport infc, CA

58

2 forms of HIV

HIV 1 and HIV 2

59

how does HIV spread

sex, cont blood, maternal (in utero, LDR, lactation)

60

what is the risk of HIV for HCP1

0.3%

61

what does HIV infection by needle stick injury depend on

viral load of blood
depth and location of injury

62

3 phases of HIV infc

primary inf
latent
overt AIDS

63

primary infc

weeks-mo. introd + replication

64

window period

time req for dx test to detect microbe

65

what do we look for in the window period of HIV

looking for inc Ab in blood in response to Ag

66

how long may the window period be

up to 3 mo

67

what occurs in the primary infc

seroconversion
high viral load and dec cd4 count

68

seroconversion

formation of ab in blood

69

what is the relationship between viral load and CD4 count

inversely porportional to eachother

70

what classifies AIDS

cd4 count that falls below a certain number and stays down OR 2 infcs and/or Ca

71

latent periods AIDS

asymptomatic
lymphatic tissue damage
recurrent resp infc rt dec IR
fatigue

72

when does overt aids occur

about 10 years after infc

73

what is targetted in overt aids

th cells, macrophages, b cells

74

what happens in overt aids

destrosy IR -> dec IR and defenses-> inc new infc + latent pathogens
affects various organs

75

dx for aids

clinical progression
ELISA
western blot assay
PCR
CD4 count
P24 Ag test
NAT

76

what does ELISA measure

measures abs via ez linked reaction. measures ab against whole virus

77

western blot assay

measures virus spec ag. test with inc specifity

78

PCR

biochemical tests not typically done. Measures virus

79

CD4

measures number of t helper cells. (inc viral load - dec CD4)

80

P24 ag test

measures protein within viral vore. appears in serum of infctd individual.

81

NAT

nucleic acid testing. replaces PCR, detects virus by looking at its nucleic acid content

82

best early test for AIDS

p24 ag test

83

number one dx for AIDS

elisa

84

top 3 mfnts for aids

resp (TB/pnumonia) -> drug resistant TB
GI
NS (dementia, encephalopathy) -> extensive damage rt infc and toxins

85

why does oppurtunistic ca occur 2

malignant cells multiply because IR cannot control them -> neoplasia -> CA
genetic mutation rt virus interruption to host cells

86

why does opportunistic infc occur

IR compromise and anatomic damage to IR

87

which oppurtunistic cas are most common in HIV

Kaposi sarcoma
NHL
cervical ca

88

kaposi sarcoma

cutaneous lesions visible on skin, mouth, lymph nodes. endothelial origin

89

tx AIDS/HIV

slow progression to AID
antiretrovirals