Uworld Exam 13 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Uworld Exam 13 Deck (53):
1

Anterior mediastinal mass and eyes get tired easily?

MG

2

Post Prandial Pain that does not respond to antacids?

Intestinal angina

3

What does positive predictive value mean?

Given that a test is positive, what is the likelihood that he actually has the disease?

4

Does PPV and NPV depend on prevalnce?

Yes

5

Explain the Blotting Techniques

North

6

Explain the cycle of Strongyloides stercoralis

Begins as a skin infection
Rhabditiform larvae in the stool

7

Parasite Eggs in Stool? What Bug?

Schistosoma

8

Worms coming out of butt?

Enterobius vermicularis

9

Proglottids in stool?

Taenia solium

10

Trophozoites and cysts in stool?

Giardia or Entamoeba

11

What makes Red Neurons?

Eosinophilic cytoplasm, pyknotic nuclei, loss of nissel substance

12

Explain 1 day 1 week 1 month in CNS

1 Day=>Red Neurons
1 Day to 1 week=> Neutrophils and Macrophages
1 week to 1 month=>reactive gliosis; liquifactive necrosis
>1 month=>Glial Scar

13

Primary Spontaneous Pneumothorax is thought to be b/c of? Where does the trachea move?

Apical Subpleural Bleb
Towards

14

Loss of muscle tone due to laughter? In what disease do you find this? How to dx the disease?

Cataplexy
Narcolepsy
Low Hypocretin-1

15

Where are the 3 places that you find Tender loving care for nancy?

Alpha ketogluterate
Pyruvate Dehydrogenase
Branched chain ketoacid

16

Orotic aciduria, What enzyme is missing in what pathway?

phosphoribosyl transferase in pyrimidine synthesis

17

B-blockers decrease aqueous humor production by targeting?

ciliary epithelium

18

What causes Hyperkalemia?

DO LAβS
Digitalis (blocks Na+/K+ ATPase)
HyperOsmolarity
Lysis of cells (e.g., crush injury, rhabdomyolysis, cancer)
Acidosis
β-blocker
High Blood Sugar (No insulin)

19

What causes Hypokalemia?

Hypo-osmolarity
Alkalosis
β-adrenergic agonist (Na+/K+ ATPase)
Insulin (Na+/K+ ATPase)-Insulin shifts it into cells

20

Multiple Fractures with Blue sclerae and hearing loss. What disease? Pathogenesis of this disease?

Osteogenesis Imperfecta
MC AD disease
POG: Problems forming triple helix=>Defective Type 1 collagen=>Osteogenesis imperfecta

21

Hyperextensable skin, tendency to bleed, hypermobile joints? MC type? Pathogenesis of this disease?

Ehlers-Danlos
MC Type: Hypermobility
Classical=>Type 5
Vascular=>Type 3
POG: Problems with cross-linking (via lysyl oxidase)

22

Brittle, Kinky hair, growth retardation and hypotonia? What disease? Genetics? Pathogenesis of this disease?

Menkes Disease
X-Linked recessive
POG: Defective ATP7A (menkes protein)=>Problems with cross-linking (decreased lysyl oxidase enzyme activity)

23

Is Red Neuron Reversible or Irreversible?

Irreversible

24

Whenever some gene are linked what should you think of?

Linkage Equilibrium

25

MHC Class I presents endogenously or exogenously? To Whom?

Endogenously synthesized antigens (e.g., viral or cytosolic proteins) to CD8+ cytotoxic T cells

26

Irreversible Changes?

Lysosomal rupture
Mitochondrial permeability/vacuolization and amorphous densities
Nuclear pyknosis, karyorrhexis, karyolysis
Plasma membrane damage
Irreversible is LMNOP

27

MHC Class II presents endogenously or exogenously? To Whom?

Present exogenously synthesized antigens (e.g., bacterial proteins) to CD4+ helper T cells

28

What protein is associated with MHC Class I?

β2-microglobulin

29

What protein is associated with MHC Class II?

Invariant chain

30

Reversible Changes?

ATP depletion
Blebbing
Cellular/mitochondrial swelling
Chromatin clumping
Decreased glycogen
Detachment of Ribosome
Fatty change
ABCDEF Reversible

31

Bupropion MOA? Use? AE?

MOA: Acts on NE transmission
Use: nictonine dependence
AE: agitation, insomnia, and seizures

32

Pneumonia, Diarrhea, hyponatremia?

Legionella
Legions are PHalaxneD soldiers

33

Free Fatty acids and Triglycerides increase resistance for?

Insulin

34

Increased Mast Cells leads to?

Increased Histamine=>increased gastrin production

35

when does the vitelline duct obliterate?

week 7

36

Cyst is connected by a fibrous band to the ileum and the umbilicus. Dx?

Vitelline Duct Cyst

37

Stool discharge from the umbilicus is due to?

persistent vitelline duct

38

Partial Closure of the vitelline duct?

Meckel's diverticulum

39

What kind of bacteria can survive boiling?

Spore Forming Bacteria

40

PAS+ stain targets?

Glycoprotein

41

Best way to reduce lithium levels?

Hemodialysis

42

Caspofungin Class? MOA? Most effective against?

Class: Echinocandins
MOA: inhibit cell wall synthesis (glucan synthesis)
Use: Candida and Aspergillus

43

HTN, Hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis and depressed renin?

Hyperaldosteroism

44

Palmitate acid?

What?

45

Caucasian new born with meconium ileus?

CF

46

Cause of death in CF newborns?

Pneumonia

47

Most common risk of aspirin?

Increased gastrointestinal blood loss

48

Patient with Hyperglycemia/hypoglycemia, steatorrhea, gallbladder stones?

Somatostatinoma

49

Painless Hematuria in a patient 50 and up is?

Urothelial/Transitional Cell Carcinoma

50

Most common type of transitional cell carcinoma? Bx?

Clear Cell Type
Bx: glycogen and lipid accumulation

51

HbS is worse than HbC because?

HbS has valine inplace of glutamic acid in the amino acid 6th position=>hydrophobic interactions and polymerization

52

Selegiline MOA?

MOA: MAO-B enzyme inhibitor

53

Entacopone MOA?

MOA: COMT blocker=>increases dopamine quantity