Flashcards in Uworld Exam 13 Deck (53):
Anterior mediastinal mass and eyes get tired easily?
Post Prandial Pain that does not respond to antacids?
What does positive predictive value mean?
Given that a test is positive, what is the likelihood that he actually has the disease?
Does PPV and NPV depend on prevalnce?
Explain the Blotting Techniques
Explain the cycle of Strongyloides stercoralis
Begins as a skin infection
Rhabditiform larvae in the stool
Parasite Eggs in Stool? What Bug?
Worms coming out of butt?
Proglottids in stool?
Trophozoites and cysts in stool?
Giardia or Entamoeba
What makes Red Neurons?
Eosinophilic cytoplasm, pyknotic nuclei, loss of nissel substance
Explain 1 day 1 week 1 month in CNS
1 Day=>Red Neurons
1 Day to 1 week=> Neutrophils and Macrophages
1 week to 1 month=>reactive gliosis; liquifactive necrosis
>1 month=>Glial Scar
Primary Spontaneous Pneumothorax is thought to be b/c of? Where does the trachea move?
Apical Subpleural Bleb
Loss of muscle tone due to laughter? In what disease do you find this? How to dx the disease?
Where are the 3 places that you find Tender loving care for nancy?
Branched chain ketoacid
Orotic aciduria, What enzyme is missing in what pathway?
phosphoribosyl transferase in pyrimidine synthesis
B-blockers decrease aqueous humor production by targeting?
What causes Hyperkalemia?
Digitalis (blocks Na+/K+ ATPase)
Lysis of cells (e.g., crush injury, rhabdomyolysis, cancer)
High Blood Sugar (No insulin)
What causes Hypokalemia?
￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼β-adrenergic agonist (Na+/K+ ATPase)
Insulin (Na+/K+ ATPase)-Insulin shifts it into cells
Multiple Fractures with Blue sclerae and hearing loss. What disease? Pathogenesis of this disease?
MC AD disease
POG: Problems forming triple helix=>Defective Type 1 collagen=>Osteogenesis imperfecta
Hyperextensable skin, tendency to bleed, hypermobile joints? MC type? Pathogenesis of this disease?
MC Type: Hypermobility
POG: Problems with cross-linking (via lysyl oxidase)
Brittle, Kinky hair, growth retardation and hypotonia? What disease? Genetics? Pathogenesis of this disease?
POG: Defective ATP7A (menkes protein)=>Problems with cross-linking (decreased lysyl oxidase enzyme activity)
Is Red Neuron Reversible or Irreversible?
Whenever some gene are linked what should you think of?
MHC Class I presents endogenously or exogenously? To Whom?
Endogenously synthesized antigens (e.g., viral or cytosolic proteins) to CD8+ cytotoxic T cells
Mitochondrial permeability/vacuolization and amorphous densities
Nuclear pyknosis, karyorrhexis, karyolysis
Plasma membrane damage
Irreversible is LMNOP
MHC Class II presents endogenously or exogenously? To Whom?
Present exogenously synthesized antigens (e.g., bacterial proteins) to CD4+ helper T cells
What protein is associated with MHC Class I?
What protein is associated with MHC Class II?
Detachment of Ribosome
Bupropion MOA? Use? AE?
MOA: Acts on NE transmission
Use: nictonine dependence
AE: agitation, insomnia, and seizures
Pneumonia, Diarrhea, hyponatremia?
Legions are PHalaxneD soldiers
Free Fatty acids and Triglycerides increase resistance for?
Increased Mast Cells leads to?
Increased Histamine=>increased gastrin production
when does the vitelline duct obliterate?
Cyst is connected by a fibrous band to the ileum and the umbilicus. Dx?
Vitelline Duct Cyst
Stool discharge from the umbilicus is due to?
persistent vitelline duct
Partial Closure of the vitelline duct?
What kind of bacteria can survive boiling?
Spore Forming Bacteria
PAS+ stain targets?
Best way to reduce lithium levels?
Caspofungin Class? MOA? Most effective against?
MOA: inhibit cell wall synthesis (glucan synthesis)
Use: Candida and Aspergillus
HTN, Hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis and depressed renin?
Caucasian new born with meconium ileus?
Cause of death in CF newborns?
Most common risk of aspirin?
Increased gastrointestinal blood loss
Patient with Hyperglycemia/hypoglycemia, steatorrhea, gallbladder stones?
Painless Hematuria in a patient 50 and up is?
Urothelial/Transitional Cell Carcinoma
Most common type of transitional cell carcinoma? Bx?
Clear Cell Type
Bx: glycogen and lipid accumulation
HbS is worse than HbC because?
HbS has valine inplace of glutamic acid in the amino acid 6th position=>hydrophobic interactions and polymerization
MOA: MAO-B enzyme inhibitor