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Flashcards in Presentations Part 2 Deck (105):
1

Anticentromere antibodies

Scleroderma (CREST)

2

Antidesmoglein (epithelial) antibodies

Pemphigus vulgaris (blistering

3

Anti–glomerular basement membrane antibodies

Goodpasture syndrome (glomerulonephritis and hemoptysis

4

Antihistone antibodies

Drug-induced SLE (hydralazine, INH, phenytoin,
procainamide)

5

Anti-IgG antibodies

Rheumatoid arthritis (systemic inflammation, joint pannus,
boutonnière deformity

6

Antimitochondrial antibodies (AMAs

1° biliary cirrhosis (female, cholestasis, portal hypertension

7

Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs

Microscopic polyangiitis and Churg-Strauss syndrome
(MPO-ANCA/p-ANCA); granulomatosis with polyangiitis
(Wegener; PR3-ANCA/c-ANCA)

8

Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs: anti-Smith and anti-dsDNA)

SLE (type III hypersensitivity

9

Antiplatelet antibodies

Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

10

Anti-topoisomerase antibodies

Diffuse systemic scleroderma

11

Anti-transglutaminase/anti-gliadin/anti-endomysial
antibodies

Celiac disease (diarrhea, distention, weight loss)

12

“Apple core” lesion on abdominal x-ray

Colorectal cancer (usually left-sided)

13

Azurophilic peroxidase  granular inclusions in granulocytes
and myeloblasts

Auer rods (AML, especially the promyelocytic [M3] type)

14

Bacitracin response

Sensitive: Streptococcus pyogenes (group A); resistant:
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B)

15

“Bamboo spine” on x-ray

Ankylosing spondylitis (chronic inflammatory arthritis:
HLA-B27)

16

Basophilic nuclear remnants in RBCs

Howell-Jolly bodies (due to splenectomy or nonfunctional
spleen)

17

Basophilic stippling of RBCs

Lead poisoning or sideroblastic anemia

18

Bloody tap on LP

Subarachnoid hemorrhage

19

“Boot-shaped” heart on x-ray

Tetralogy of Fallot, RVH

20

Branching gram-positive rods with sulfur granules

Actinomyces israelii

21

Bronchogenic apical lung tumor on imaging

Pancoast tumor (can compress sympathetic ganglion and
cause Horner syndrome

22

“Brown” tumor of bone

Hyperparathyroidism or osteitis fibrosa cystica (deposited
hemosiderin from hemorrhage gives brown color)

23

Cardiomegaly with apical atrophy

Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi)

24

Cellular crescents in Bowman capsule

Rapidly progressive crescentic glomerulonephritis

25

“Chocolate cyst” of ovary

Endometriosis (frequently involves both ovaries)

26

Circular grouping of dark tumor cells surrounding pale
neurofibrils

Homer-Wright rosettes (neuroblastoma, medulloblastoma,
retinoblastoma)

27

Colonies of mucoid Pseudomonas in lungs

Cystic fibrosis (autosomal recessive mutation in CFTR gene
Ž fat-soluble vitamin deficiency and mucous plugs

28

 AFP in amniotic fluid/maternal serum

Down syndrome or other chromosomal abnormality

29

Degeneration of dorsal column nerves

Tabes dorsalis (3° syphilis), subacute combined degeneration
(dorsal columns and lateral corticospinal tracts affected)

30

Depigmentation of neurons in substantia nigra

Parkinson disease (basal ganglia disorder: rigidity, resting
tremor, bradykinesia)

31

Desquamated epithelium casts in sputum

Curschmann spirals (bronchial asthma; can result in whorled
mucous plugs)

32

Disarrayed granulosa cells in eosinophilic fluid

Call-Exner bodies (granulosa-theca cell tumor of the ovary)

33

Dysplastic squamous cervical cells with nuclear enlargement
and hyperchromasia

Koilocytes (HPV: predisposes to cervical cancer)

34

Enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusion bodies

“Owl eye” appearance of CMV

35

Enlarged thyroid cells with ground-glass nuclei

“Orphan Annie” eyes nuclei (papillary carcinoma of the
thyroid)

36

Eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion in liver cell

Mallory body (alcoholic liver disease)

37

Eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion in nerve cell

Lewy body (Parkinson disease)

38

Eosinophilic globule in liver

Councilman body (toxic or viral hepatitis, often yellow feve

39

Eosinophilic inclusion bodies in cytoplasm of hippocampal
and cerebellar nerve cells

Negri bodies of rabies

40

Extracellular amyloid deposition in gray matter of brain

Senile plaques (Alzheimer disease)

41

Giant B cells with bilobed nuclei with prominent inclusions
(“owl’s eye”)

Reed-Sternberg cells (Hodgkin lymphoma

42

Glomerulus-like structure surrounding vessel in germ cells

Schiller-Duval bodies (yolk sac tumor)

43

“Hair on end” (crew-cut) appearance on x-ray

β-thalassemia, sickle cell anemia (marrow expansion)

44

hCG elevated

Choriocarcinoma, hydatidiform mole (occurs with and
without embryo, and multiple pregnancy)

45

Heart nodules (granulomatous)

Aschoff bodies (rheumatic fever)

46

Heterophile antibodies

Infectious mononucleosis (EBV)

47

Hexagonal, double-pointed, needle-like crystals in bronchial
secretion

Bronchial asthma (Charcot-Leyden crystals: eosinophilic
granules)

48

High level of d-dimers

DVT, PE, DIC

49

Hilar lymphadenopathy, peripheral granulomatous lesion in middle or lower lung lobes (can calcify)

Ghon complex (1° TB: Mycobacterium bacilli)

50

“Honeycomb lung” on x-ray or CT

Interstitial pulmonary fibrosis

51

Hypercoagulability (leading to migrating DVTs and vasculitis)

Trousseau syndrome (adenocarcinoma of pancreas or lung)

52

Hypersegmented neutrophils

Megaloblastic anemia (B12 deficiency: neurologic symptoms;
folate deficiency: no neurologic symptoms)

53

Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis

Conn syndrome

54

Hypochromic, microcytic anemia

Iron deficiency anemia, lead poisoning, thalassemia (fetal
hemoglobin sometimes present)

55

Increased AFP in amniotic fluid/maternal serum

Dating error, anencephaly, spina bifida (neural tube defect

56

Increased uric acid levels

Gout, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, tumor lysis syndrome, loop
and thiazide diuretics

57

Intranuclear eosinophilic droplet-like bodies

Cowdry type A bodies (HSV or CMV)

58

Iron-containing nodules in alveolar septum

Ferruginous bodies (asbestosis:  chance of mesothelioma)

59

Keratin pearls on a skin biopsy

Squamous cell carcinoma

60

Large lysosomal vesicles in phagocytes immunodeficiency

Chédiak-Higashi disease (congenital failure of phagolysosome
formation)

61

“Lead pipe” appearance of colon on barium enema x-ray

Ulcerative colitis (loss of haustra)

62

Linear appearance of IgG deposition on glomerular basement
membrane

Goodpasture syndrome

63

Low serum ceruloplasmin

Wilson disease (hepatolenticular degeneration)

64

“Lumpy bumpy” appearance of glomeruli on
immunofluorescence

Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (immune complex
deposition of IgG and C3b)

65

Lytic (“hole punched”) bone lesions on x-ray

Multiple myeloma

66

Mammary gland (“blue domed”) cyst

Fibrocystic change of the breast

67

Monoclonal antibody spike

ƒƒMultiple myeloma (usually IgG or IgA)
ƒƒMonoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance
(MGUS consequence of aging)
ƒƒWaldenström (M protein = IgM) macroglobulinemia
ƒƒ Primary amyloidosis

68

Mucin-filled cell with peripheral nucleus

“Signet ring” (gastric carcinoma)

69

Narrowing of bowel lumen on barium x-ray

“String sign” (Crohn disease)

70

Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing
glomerulonephriti

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener; PR3-ANCA/
c-ANCA) and Goodpasture syndrome (anti–basement
membrane antibodies)

71

Needle-shaped, negatively birefringent crystals

Gout (monosodium urate crystals)

72

Nodular hyaline deposits in glomeruli

Kimmelstiel-Wilson nodules (diabetic nephropathy)

73

Novobiocin response

Sensitive: Staphylococcus epidermidis; resistant:
Staphylococcus saprophyticus

74

“Nutmeg” appearance of liver

Chronic passive congestion of liver due to right heart failure

75

“Onion skin” periosteal reaction

Ewing sarcoma (malignant round-cell tumor)

76

Optochin response

Sensitive: Streptococcus pneumoniae; resistant: viridans
streptococci

77

Periosteum raised from bone, creating triangular area

Codman triangle on x-ray (osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma
pyogenic osteomyelitis)

78

Podocyte fusion or “effacement” on electron microscopy

Minimal change disease (child with nephrotic syndrome)

79

Polished, “ivory-like” appearance of bone at cartilage erosion

Eburnation (osteoarthritis resulting in bony sclerosis)

80

Protein aggregates in neurons from hyperphosphorylation of
tau protein

Neurofibrillary tangles (Alzheimer disease) and Pick bodies
(Pick disease)

81

Psammoma bodies

Meningiomas, papillary thyroid carcinoma, mesothelioma,
papillary serous carcinoma of the endometrium and ovary

82

Pseudopalisading tumor cells on brain biopsy

Glioblastoma multiforme

83

RBC casts in urine

Acute glomerulonephritis

84

Rectangular, crystal-like, cytoplasmic inclusions in Leydig cells

Reinke crystals (Leydig cell tumor)

85

Renal epithelial casts in urine

Acute toxic/viral renal injury

86

Rhomboid crystals, positively birefringent

Pseudogout (calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals)

87

Rib notching

Coarctation of the aorta

88

Ring-enhancing brain lesion in AIDS

Toxoplasma gondii, CNS lymphoma

89

Sheets of medium-sized lymphoid cells with scattered pale,
tingible body–laden macrophages (“starry sky” histology)

Burkitt lymphoma (t[8:14] c-myc activation, associated with
EBV; “black sky” made up of malignant cells)

90

Silver-staining spherical aggregation of tau proteins in
neurons

Pick bodies (Pick disease: progressive dementia, changes in
personality)

91

“Soap bubble” in femur or tibia on x-ray

Giant cell tumor of bone (generally benign)

92

“Spikes” on basement membrane, “dome-like” subepithelial
deposits

Membranous glomerulonephritis (may progress to nephrotic
syndrome)

93

Stacks of RBCs

Rouleaux formation (high ESR, multiple myeloma)

94

Stippled vaginal epithelial cells

“Clue cells” (Gardnerella vaginalis)

95

“Tennis racket”-shaped cytoplasmic organelles (EM) in
Langerhans cells

Birbeck granules (Langerhans cell histiocytosis or
histiocytosis X: eosinophilic granuloma)

96

Thrombi made of white/red layers

Lines of Zahn (arterial thrombus, layers of platelets/RBCs)

97

“Thumb sign” on lateral x-ray

Epiglottitis (Haemophilus influenzae)

98

Thyroid-like appearance of kidney

Chronic bacterial pyelonephritis

99

“Tram-track” appearance of capillary loops of glomerular
basement membranes on light microscopy

Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis

100

Triglyceride accumulation in liver cell vacuoles

Fatty liver disease (alcoholic or metabolic syndrome)

101

“Waxy” casts with very low urine flow

Chronic end-stage renal disease

102

WBC casts in urine

Acute pyelonephritis

103

WBCs that look “smudged”

CLL (almost always B cell)

104

“Wire loop” glomerular capillary appearance on light
microscopy

Lupus nephropathy

105

Yellowish CSF

Xanthochromia (e.g., due to subarachnoid hemorrhage)