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Flashcards in 1EXAM- APUSH Deck (230)
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0
Q

What are the Bill of Rights
When were they added to the constitution?
When was the constitution written

A

First 10 amendments
December 15 1791
September 17 1787

1
Q

Written by Thomas Jefferson

Signed on July 4th, 1776

A

The Declaration of Independence

2
Q

List 1-5 Ammendments

A

1-freedom of religion, press, speech, assembly, petition
2- right to bear arms
3- right to not have to quarter soldiers and seizures
4- freedom from unreasonable search and seizure
5- trial by jury and due process of law freedom from self-incriminations and double jeopardy

3
Q

List ammendments 6-15

A

6- speedy trial, right to be informed of charges, to be present when witnesses speak, to call defense witness, a lawyer
7- trial by jury in civil cases according to common law
8- cruel and unusual punishment, excessive bail
9- guarantee of rights not listed in constitution
10- rights of the states and people
11- prevents suits against states (out-of-states citizens)
12- choosing the president and Vice President
13- slavery abolished
14- citizenship for blacks
15- voting for black males

4
Q

Who wrote the pledge of allegiance

A

Francis Bellamy

5
Q

List all 7 continents

A

North America, South America, Asia, Africa, Antarctica, Europe, Australia (Asia is the biggest)

6
Q

What are the 3 branches of government

A

Legislative, executive, judicial

7
Q

Also known as the 7 years war
Fought between the British colonies (with aid from Iroquois) and New France (with aid from all other native Americans)
Fought over control of the Ohio valley

A

French and Indian war

8
Q

Who was Johnathan Edwards

A

Theologian/revivalist preacher/philosopher during the great awakening
He was born 1703 and died 1758
Wrote sinners in the hands of an angry God

9
Q

Who was Haym Salomen

A

1740-1785

Polish born American Jewish businessman who immigrated to NY during the American Revolution

10
Q

Who was Frederick Douglass

A

1818-1895
Abolitionist/former slave
First black to hold U.S government rank

11
Q

Who was Harriet Beecher Stowe

A

1811-1896
Wrote Uncle Tom’s Cabin
Abolitionist/author of over 30 books

12
Q

List the presidents from Washington to Johnson and their parties

A
Washington- federalist (non partisan)
Adams (federalist)
Jefferson (demo-repub)
Madison (demo-repub)
Monroe (demo-repub)
Quincy Adams (demo-repub)
Jackson (democratic)
Buren (democratic)
Harrison (Whig)
Tyler (Whig)
Polk (democratic)
Taylor (Whig)
Fillmore (Whig)
Pierce (democratic)
Buchanan (democratic)
Lincoln (republican)
Johnson (democratic)
13
Q

In colonial America, what were the NE, Middle, and Southern Colonies

A

NE- Rhode Island, Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire
Middle- New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Delaware,
Southern- North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Maryland, Virginia

14
Q

Strong central government
Favored national bank
Constitution
Hamilton, James Madison, John Jay
Supported by wealthy residents of the seaboard, men like Washington+Franklin
Controlled the press throughout the 1790s

A

Federalists

15
Q

What were some advantages of the Union during the civil war?

A

Population (22,300,000)
# of states (24)
Industry (110,000 factories made textiles, ammunition, etc [80% of the industry of the nation])
Railroad miles (21,973 miles)
Food (hardtack, dried/salted pork, cornmeal, coffee, etc.)
Financial resources (revenue from export, effective banks, income tax)
Political leaders (Lincoln and Douglass)
Navy (700 ships, blockade)

16
Q

What were some of the advantages of the confederacy during the civil war

A
Military leaders (Robert E Lee, Stonewall Jackson, J.E.B. Stuart, military colleges)
Calvary (riding horses was common, West Point graduates)
Home territory (familiar surroundings, knew the land [battles fought in south mostly/defensive war])
Supply lines (shorter/less railroads)
Cause (wanted to secede and preserve slavery- they also fought for states' rights)
Foreign aid/intervention- inspired by want of foreign aid, motivated because British built ships
17
Q
Anti Federalists-
What government did they favor?
Leaders?
Supported by?
Feel about the constitution?
A

Favored a weak central government and stronger state govt
Samuel Adams, Patrick Henry, Richard Henry lee
Backcountry farmers and the poorest classes
Felt the constitution was anti-democratic and favored the wealthy

18
Q
Democratic-republican
What kind of govt did they favor
Who started this party
Views of constitution
Other desires
A

Weak central govt
Thomas Jefferson in the 1790s
Strict interpretation of the constitution (unlike Federalists)
Favored the agricultural aspect of economy and disproved of special rights for upper classes
Wanted voting rights for all white educated males

19
Q

The Democratic Party
Leader?
Where did they grow out of?
Favored what kind of government

A

Andrew Jackson
Jefferson’s demo-repub
Strong state govt and weak central govt

20
Q

Pro-bank, pro-tariff, and pro-internal improvements
Formed in opposition to the Jacksonian Federalists
First members include Henry clay, John C Calhoun, and Webster
Agreed on little but opposition to Jackson and his policies
Welcomed the market economy, drawing support from manufacturers, planers, merchants, and bankers

A

The Whig Party

21
Q

The Republican Party
Where did it form and why
Where was it banned

A

In the Midwest (Wisconsin and Michigan) by members of all parties in opposition to slavery
Banned below the Mason-Dixon Line because of anti-slavery views

22
Q

The Liberty Party was also known as what

What did it hope to do

A
Antislavery party (1840-1848)
Hoped to eventually abolish slavery in the long run but immediately halt the expansion of it
23
Q

Describe the free-soil party

A
Antislavery party (1848-1854)
Opposed the expansion of slavery into new territories because it would limit opportunities for free-laborers
24
Q

Describe the election of 1800

A
John Adams (federalist) and Thomas Jefferson (demo-repub)
Jefferson is elected president and power transfers from the Federalists to the demo-repubs
25
Q

Describe the election of 1824

A

John Q Adams vs William H Crawford (both republican)
Clay was eliminated, but as speaker of the house oversaw the group who would elect the president
Adams is elected, though many felt it was only because of Henry Clay’s behind the scenes work

26
Q

Describe the election of 1860

A

Stephen A Douglas (democrat) vs Abraham Lincoln (republican) vs. John Bell (constitutional Union) vs. Breckenridge (democrat)
Lincoln is elected, leading to the beginning of abolition and the civil war

27
Q

The Case of Marbury vs. Madison

A

Established the principle of “judicial review” (supreme court has final authority to determine constitutionality)

28
Q

The case of McCulloh vs. Maryland

A

Strengthened federal authority

Upheld constitutionality of the US Bank by saying that MD did not have the power to tax the bank

29
Q

The case of Gibbons vs Ogden

A

Suit over whether NY could grant monopoly to a ferry operating on interstate waters
Ruled congress alone could regulate interstate commerce

30
Q

Case of Cherokee Nation vs Georgia

A

Cherokee nation approaches Supreme Court to challenge Georgia’s court declaration that the Cherokee tribal council was illegal and asserted their power over native rights and land
Ruled in favor of Cherokee but Jackson ignored the decision (IRA)

31
Q

The case of commonwealth vs Hunt

A

Strengthened labor movement by upholding legality of unions

32
Q

Case of dred Scott vs Stanford

A

Extended slavery protection by saying congress could not outlaw slavery
Declared slaves property, not citizens

33
Q

Appalachians to the Mississippi was Midwest land acquired from _________

A

Natives

34
Q

What was the Louisiana purchase

A

Acquisition of Louisiana Territory from France, doubling the US in size
15 million or .04 cents an acre

35
Q

How did the US acquire Florida

A

Adams-Onis treaty (1819)

Spain gave the US Florida, the US gave up claims to Texas

36
Q

Mexican Cession

A

Stretched the US across the continent, secured Texas, etc. at the end of the Mexican war

37
Q

What was the Gadsden Purchase

A

Additional land from Mexico for $10 million

Intended to build southern trains-continental railroad

38
Q

How did the US acquire Alaska

A

Purchased from Russia

39
Q

What was the Peggy Eaton affair

A

It was a scandalous affair involving members of Jackson’s cabinet members and their wives
It began with Margaret O’Neale who, supposedly had an affair with John Eaton while her husband was away

40
Q

Describe King Phillip’s War

A

Series of assaults by Metacom (King Phillip) on New England settlements
Slowed westward expansion for decades

41
Q

Describe Bacon’s Rebellion

A

Uprising of VA backcountry farmers and indentured servants in response to Governor Berkeley’s refusal to protect them from Indian attacks

42
Q

Describe Pontiac’s rebellion

A

Ottawa Chief’s attempt to drive British from Ohio

Crushed by troops who gave out blankets with smallpox

43
Q

Describe the French and Indian war

A

9 year war between Britain and France in US

Expulsion of France from mainland and sparked 7 years war in Europe

44
Q

Who were the Paxton boys

A

Armed march on Philadelphia by Scots-Irish to protect Quaker’s lenient Native American policies

45
Q

Uprising in backcountry North Carolina against unfair taxation and control of affairs by seaboard elite

A

Regulators

46
Q

US gains independence in what war

A

Revolutionary war 1775-1783

47
Q

(Shay’s Rebellion/XYZ Affair) was an uprising of western Massachusetts debtors seeking lower taxes and end to foreclosure of farms
Inspired fears of “mob rule”

A

Shay’s rebellion

48
Q

What was the XYZ affair

A

Diplomatic conflict between France and US when US messengers are asked to pay bribe to meet with French foreign minister
Undeclared war in the Caribbean

49
Q

Who were the Barbary Pirates

A

Often plunder and blackmail merchant ships in Mediterranean

50
Q

Describe the war of 1812

A

Fought between Britain and US over trade and impressment issues
Ended in draw, but US gains respect in Europe

51
Q

What was the nullification crisis

A

Showdown between Andrew Jackson and SC legislature
SC null and voided 1832 tariff and threatened secession
Compromise reached by Henry clay in 1833

52
Q

Series of clashes between US and Canada lumberjacks in northern Maine, resolved with boundary in 1842

A

Aroostook war

53
Q

A war with Mexico 1846-1848 over territorial issues

A

Mexican-American war

54
Q

Fought within US between the north and south over issues such as unionity and slavery
1861-1865

A

Civil war

55
Q

The first battles of the revolutionary war were at _________________________, fought outside of Boston
Colonial militia stands their ground and the British retreat to Boston

A

Lexington and concord

56
Q

George Washington surprised and captured sleeping Hessians, raising morale at Trenton
This sets the stage for the victory at Princeton
What battle?

A

Trenton-Princeton

57
Q

Colonial victory in upstate NY
Helped secure French support for the revolution
What battle?

A

Saratoga

58
Q

George Washington, with help from the French army, besieges Cornwallis at ______ while the French naval fleet blocks reinforcements
British surrender

A

Yorktown

59
Q

War of 1812 battle
Resulted in the defeat of Shawnee chief Tenskwata (The Prophet) at the hands of William Henry Harrison
Causes his brother, Tecumseh, to ally with the British against the US

A

Tippecanoe

60
Q

The Battle of New Orleans
When was it
Who won
What did it do

A

January 1815
Victory of the US forces against the British
Restored US confidence and fueled nationalism; last battle of the War of 1812

61
Q

Mexican-American war battle, beginning of Scott’s expedition

A

Veracruz

62
Q

Scott captures ___________________ ending the Mexican-American War

A

Mexico City

63
Q

What was the first major battle of the civil war
Who won
What did it end

A

First battle of bull run
South
Ended North’s view of a swift victory

64
Q

Battle of Shiloh

A

April 1862; bloody civil war battle on Tennessee-Mississippi border
23,000 deaths and union victory

65
Q

Describe the battle of Antietam

A

September 1862; important civil war battle
Ended in a draw, but gave Lincoln the “victory” he needed to issue to emancipation proclamation
Highest death total for one day battle
Close to 26,000 deaths
Lee’s first northern invasion

66
Q

1863
2 month siege of Confederate fort on the Mississippi River in Tennessee
Fell to Grant in July 1863, giving union control of the river

A

Vicksburg

67
Q

Describe the battle of Gettysburg

A

July 1863
Battle in Pennsylvania that ended in Union victory
Confederacy will never invade or defeat the North again

68
Q

What was the Appomatox Courthouse

A

Site where Robert E Lee surrenders to Ulysses S Grant in April of 1865

69
Q

What is the difference between the treaty of Paris of 1763 and that of 1783

A

1763- signed after Britain’s victory over France and Spain in the 7 years war
1783- ended revolutionary war. Britain formally recognizes US independence and ceded territory east of Mississippi. US promised to repay loyalist debts

70
Q

The __________________ Treaty was negotiated by John Jay to avoid war with Britain. British promise to evacuate outposts on US soil, repay damages for seized vessels
US promise to follow trade laws and repay PreRevolutionary war debts

A

Jay

71
Q

This treaty was signed in San Lorenzo de El Escorial on October 27, 1795 and established intentions of friendship between the United States and Spain
Gave US the Mississippi and Florida

A

Pinckney Treaty

72
Q

Treaty of __________ was signed in 1815 and ended the war of 1812 in a draw. It restored borders but failed to address US grievances

A

Ghent

73
Q

1817
Signed with Britain to establish strict limits on navy in the Great Lakes
First step in demilitarization of the Canadian border

A

Rush-Bagot Agreement

74
Q

What was the Adams-Onis Treaty

A

Spain ceded Florida to US, US gave up claims in Texas (1819)

75
Q

What treaty settled the Canadian border in 1842

A

Webster-Ashburton treaty

76
Q

Treaty of Guadelupe

A

1848

Ended war with Mexico, Mexico gives land from Texas to Oregon in return for 18.25 million

77
Q

The _____________________ of 1649 was passed in Maryland
It guaranteed toleration to all Christians but decreed death penalty for Jews and atheists (who denied Christ)
This attracted Catholics

A

Toleration Act

78
Q

The _____________________ Acts were a series of laws passed (beginning in 1651) to regulate colonial shipping; these acts provided only English ships would trade, all colonial goods must pass through England

A

Navigation

79
Q

The ____________________ of 1763 prevented settling west of the Appalachians due to Pontiac’s uprising. It contributed to the colonies’s resentment of Britain

A

Proclamation Act

80
Q

What was the sugar act

A

1764
Tax on imported sugar
First tax on colonists by Britain, lowered due to protests

81
Q

What was the stamp act

A

1765
Tax on paper goods that was repealed in 1766 due to colonial protest
Developed “no taxation without representation”

82
Q

1766

Passed along with repeal of stamp act to reaffirm Parliament’s power over the colonies

A

Declaratory act

83
Q

Townshend acts

A

Indirect taxes on glass, white lead, paper, paint, and tea to pay colonial Governors
Angered colonists

84
Q

What were the intolerable/coercive acts

A

Retaliation to Boston tea party; closing Boston port, revoking Massachusetts colonial charter, expand ding quartering act
Not repealed until colonists pay Britain damage reparations
Colonists respond with first continental congress

85
Q

The __________ Act was in 1744 and it allowed the French Quebec residents to retain traditional political and religious institutions, extended province to Ohio River
Colonists mistakenly thought it was a response to Tea Party

A

Quebec

86
Q

The _________________ of 1789 organized the federal legal system, established the Supreme Court, federal district and circuit courts, and attorney general

A

Judiciary act

87
Q

The ____________ of 1785 was the selling of land in the Old NW and earmarked proceeds towards paying nationals debt

A

Land ordinance

88
Q

The _________________ of 1787 was a policy for administering the NW territories, including path to statehood and forbade slavery in the territories

A

Northwest ordinance

89
Q

What were Hamilton’s financial acts

A

Alexander Hamilton, first secretary of the treasury, makes financial plans

90
Q

What were the alien and sedition acts

A

1798-passed by federalist congress raising residency requirement for citizenship to 14 years and granting president right to deport (alien)
1798- effort to clamp down Jeffersonian opposition; anyone convicted of defaming officials or policies were liable to prison and a fine (sedition)

91
Q

What were the Virginia and Kentucky resolves

A

1798-1799, secretly drafted by Jefferson and Madison, argued states could nullify legislation they deemed unconstitutional

92
Q

Describe the Missouri Compromise of 1820

A

Allowed Missouri to enter as a slave state and preserved the balance between the north and south by prohibiting slavery in Maine, Louisiana purchase, north of 36,30

93
Q

The 1828 ___________________________ placed unprecedentedly high duties on imports
Southerners opposed this, saying it hurt farmers, but were forced to pay higher price for manufacturers

A

Tariff of abominations

94
Q

Nullified in SC, leading to the Nullification crisis

A

1832 tariff

95
Q

What was passed to resolve the nullification crisis

A

Force bill 1833 compromise tariff
Taxes lowered gradually over 10 years (to 1816 levels)
Force bill allowed the president to use military to collect tariffs

96
Q

The _____________ prohibited debate/action in Antislavery appeals; passed every year for 8 years until overturned with the help of John Quincy Adams

A

Gag Rule

97
Q

Passed by several Northern US states to counter fugitive slave acts
Some allowed jury or forbid authority from cooperating in capture

A

Personal liberty laws

98
Q

Describe the conditions of the compromise of 1850

A

Admitted Cali as a free state, opened New Mexico and Utah territory to popular sovereignty, ended slave trade in DC and introduced harsher fugitive slave law
Opposed in both the north and south, did not settle slavery dispute

99
Q

The ________________ Act in 1854 said slavery should be decided by popular sovereignty in Kansas and Nebraska, revoking Missouri Compromise
Introduced by Stephen Douglass in effort to bring Nebraska into Union to pave way for northern transcontinental railroad

A

Kansas-Nebraska

100
Q

What was the Wade-Davis Bill

A

Passed by republicans in response to Lincoln’s 10% plan
Required 50% of a state’s voters pledge allegiance to the Union, set stronger safeguards for emancipation
Reflected divisions between the president and congress

101
Q

Describe the time occurrence and the details of the great awakening

A

1730s and 1740s- a religious revival that swept the colonies
Minsters (Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield) emphasize on direct, emotive spirituality

102
Q

The ______________ ___________ ____ ______________ was a plan proposed in Albany Congress in 1754 to unite the colonies
Included: a grand council and president-general

A

Albany Plan of Union

103
Q

Who were the Sons of Liberty

A

A patriotic group during Revolution

Significant role on Stamp Act repeal and enforcing non importation agreements

104
Q

_______________________ ____ __________________: Began in 1772. Local Committees in Massachusetts (later in all colonies) to maintain opposition to British policies through exchange of letters and pamphlets

A

Committees of Correspondence

105
Q

__________ ______ _______________: 1765-assembly of delegates from 9 colonies in NYC to draft petition for repeal of stamp act
Eased sectional suspicions and promoted unity

A

Stamp act congress

106
Q

What was the first continental congress?

What was the second continental congress?

A

1st- 1774 meeting of delegates from 12/13 (no Georgia) colonies in Philadelphia in response to Intolerable Acts. established Association, called for Boycott of British goods
2nd-1775-1781 body of delegates of all colonies. Drafted the declaration and managed colonial war effort

107
Q

The ______________ was from 1814-1815 and was a federalist convention from 5 NE states who opposed the War of 1812 and resented southern and western strength in congress

A

Hartford Convention

108
Q

1806 highway

First built entirely on federal funds, helpful to economy

A

National road

109
Q

1825 NY canal that links Lake Erie to Hudson River

Lowered shipping cost, fueling economic boom and helping Northwest farming

A

Erie Canal

110
Q

Describe the events of the second great awakening

A

Revival (in early 19th century) characterized by “camp meetings” and widespread conversion
Democratization of religions as they vie for members

111
Q

“_______________”: Polk’s slogan that led him to victory; wanted expansion to northern Oregon border, the 54,40 line

A

54,40 or Fight

112
Q

What was the Seneca Falls Convention

A

1848 (July)-first modern women’s rights convention

Declaration of sentiments and 11 resolutions

113
Q

The ____________ were religious followers of Joseph Smith. They were a communal, oligarchic order in the 1830s
“Church of Jesus Christ” “Church of Latter Day Saints”
Eventually migrated west to Utah

A

Mormons

114
Q

The ________ began in 1770 and named for lively dance worship
They emphasized simple, communal, living and celibacy
Brought from England by Mother Ann Lee

A

Shakers

115
Q

1841-1846 transcendental commune founded by intellectuals; emphasized plain living and pursuing life of mine
Fell into debt and burned 1846

A

Brook Farm

116
Q

What is popular sovereignty

A

During civil war era, allowed certain states to decide if they want to be slave or free

117
Q

What was John Brown’s Raid

A

Raid on Arsenal at Harper’s Ferry, Virginia in 1859 (Antislavery attack)
brown was captured and executed and this alarmed the south

118
Q

_________________: 1858 declaration that since slavery could not exist without protection laws, territorial legislatures, not Supreme Court, would have the final say
Argued by Stephen Douglass in response to Lincoln’s “Freeport Question”

A

Freeport Doctrine

119
Q

Attacked by South April 1861, beginning the civil war

A

Fort Sumter

120
Q

______________ were northern democrats who obstructed war effort by attacking Lincoln, draft, and emancipation

A

Copperheads

121
Q

What was the Alabama

A

1862-1864 British built and manned confederate warship; raided union shipping during civil war

122
Q

_________: Union ironclad, successes bring an end to the use of wooden ships
_________: (above answer’s) Confederate counterpart

A

Monitor, Merrimack

123
Q

Helped establish Jamestown, VA and was associated with POwhatan and his daughter, Pocahontas
Leader of VA colony 1607-1609, led exploration along rivers of Virginia and Chesapeake

A

John Smith

124
Q

Early settler; husband of Pocahontas and father of tobacco

A

John Rolfe

125
Q

Daughter of Powhatan and wife of John Rolfe

“Saved” John Smith to show her father’s desire for good relations

A

Pocahontas

126
Q

Father of Pocahontas, Indian chief in VA who meets the first settlers

A

Powhatan

127
Q

Second governor of the Plymouth colony

Developed private land ownership, helped the colony out of debt, survive droughts, crop failures and Indian attacks

A

William Bradford

128
Q

Patuxet man who helped pilgrims in Massachusetts survive (taught them to plant, etc.)

A

Squanto

129
Q

Wampanoag Chief, signed treaty with Plymouth Pilgrims and helped them celebrate the first Thanksgiving

A

Massasoit

130
Q

Metacom; made a pan Indian alliance and assaulted villages (“King Philip’s War”)
Attacked 52 Puritan towns before beheaded and displayed in Plymouth

A

King Philip

131
Q

Well-born Englishman; joined army and became Quaker
Earned land from the King-Pennsylvania (Penn’s Woodland) to be asylum for his people, experiment with government ideas and make a profit

A

William Penn

132
Q

Lord Baltimore; Catholic nobleman, granted land, named Maryland
Wanted to achieve wealth and create haven for Catholics

A

George Calvert

133
Q

Wealthy Englishman who became the Bay Colony’s first governor
Believed he had a calling to lead a new religious experiment
“City Upon a Hill”

A

John Winthrop

134
Q

Puritan minister in Boston, wrote 400+ religious works

Spread fear of witches, led to Salem witch trials

A

Cotton Mather

135
Q

English military man; est. headquarters in Boston

Hated because of hostility towards Church and enforcement of Navigation Laws

A

Edmund Andros

136
Q

Founded Georgia’s first settlement (Savannah in 1733)

GA’s first governor

A

James Oglethorpe

137
Q

Ottawa chief that led several tribes in Great Lakes area in war against the British (Pontiac’s Rebellion)

A

Pontiac

138
Q

King of England 1760-1820

Wanted to be active and involved in colonies, unlike those before him

A

George III

139
Q

British leader 1757-1758, led and won war against Quebec

A

William Pitt

140
Q

British politician sympathetic towards colonies

Opposed early feminist movements, thought women were animals

A

Edmund Burke

141
Q

King George III’s prime minister, passed Sugar Act and Stamp Act
Believed in reducing financial burden in Britain by taxing colonists

A

George Grenville

142
Q

Wrote “Virginia Resolves”

Famous orator who urged colonists to fight; “give me liberty or give me death”

A

Patrick Henry

143
Q

3rd president; drafted the Declaration of Independence

Founded the Democratic-Republican party

A

Thomas Jefferson

144
Q

1st president; leader of the continental army

A

George Washington

145
Q

Colonial hero

Signed declarations, wrote “Poor Richard’s Almanac,” served as post-master of Philadelphia

A

Benjamin Franklin

146
Q

Second president of the US, first Vice President

Supported the revolution

A

John Adams

147
Q

Organized the committees of correspondence

Affiliated with Sons of Liberty

A

Samuel Adams

148
Q

Led moderates at second continental congress; “Letters from a farmer”

A

John Dickinson

149
Q

Wealthy Massachusetts merchant, first to sign Declaration

A

John Hancock

150
Q

Royal governor of Massachusetts who left office after the Boston Tea Party
Personal letters spread by Sam Adams to anger colonists

A

Thomas Hutchinson

151
Q

British General who tried to reach stockpiled weapons at Lexington and Concord

A

Thomas Gage

152
Q

British General; captured Fort Ticonderoga but was stopped by Arnold near the Hudson

A

John Burgoyne

153
Q

British soldier and commander in the South; defeated Gates at Camden but surrendered at Yorktown, ultimately ending war

A

Charles Cornwallis

154
Q

British military commander, succeeded Thomas Gage

Left forces to Burgoyne, leading to their defeat

A

William Howe

155
Q

American General, turned traitor in 1780 and joined the British cause

A

Benedict Arnold

156
Q

US soldier who was captured and executed by the British army

A

Nathan Hale

157
Q

Soldier that helped capture Fort Ticonderoga from the British

A

Ethan Allen

158
Q

Wrote “Common Sense” and helped fuel the revolution

A

Thomas Paine

159
Q

Believed all government is “created for the people, by the people,” and “all people have the right to life, liberty and property”
Enlightenment thinker whose ideas were in the declaration

A

John Locke

160
Q

Led troops in Boston and NY, succeeded Horatio Gates and weakened British army so Cornwallis had to abandon plans

A

Nathaniel Greene

161
Q

Served in British army during French and Indian war, then US during the revolution
Forced British surrender at Saratoga

A

Horatio Gates

162
Q

Swamp fox; American guerrilla who led others to recapture SC

A

Francis Marion

163
Q

Federalist; first treasurer of state who designed financial program that helped US out of debt.
Established national bank and excise/revenue taxes

A

Alexander Hamilton

164
Q

Proposed the Virginia Plan in support of large states; helped write federalist papers, 4th president

A

James Madison

165
Q

Only African American during this period to write an almanac

A

Benjamin Banneker

166
Q

1st Chief Justice of the supreme court

A

John Jay

167
Q

The 1st secretary of war

A

Henry Knox

168
Q

“Citizen Genet”, Frenchman who moved to USA to make an alliance with France, but was deported

A

Edmond Genet

169
Q

US painter known for portraits of people such as Paul Revere and John Hancock

A

John Singleton Copley

170
Q

Inventor of the cotton gin (1793) and interchangeable parts

A

Eli Whitney

171
Q

Supreme Court justice who made many decisions influential to the US

A

John Marshall

172
Q

“The Chancellor”; administered presidential oath to George Washington

A

Robert Livingston

173
Q

Lewis and Clark expedition in 1804-1806

A

William Clark and Merriwether Lewis

174
Q

Shoshone guide and interpreter of Lewis and Clark expedition 1804-1806

A

Sacajawea

175
Q

Installed steam engine and created first steam boat during transportation revolution

A

Robert Fulton

176
Q

Explorer who led Pike expedition to explore Louisiana purchase

A

Zebulon Pike

177
Q

Third Vice President under Thomas Jefferson

A

Aaron Burr

178
Q

Corrupt governor of Louisiana Territory, allied with Burr to separate Western US and expand through attacks
Acquitted by Madison and fled to Europe

A

James Wilkinson

179
Q

“The Prophet’s” brother, Indian chief who allies with British in war of 1812

A

Tecumseh

180
Q

Wrote “The Star Spangled Banner”

A

Francis Scott Key

181
Q

Transcendentalists writers

A

Henry David Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson

182
Q

Walt Whitman was an American (war veteran/poet)

A

Poet

183
Q

Who wrote the legend of sleep hallow

A

Washington Irving (American author)

184
Q

The 9th president of the US, first to die in office (after only one month)

A

William Henry Harrison

185
Q

Oliver Perry was an American (naval commander/international spy)

A

Naval commander

186
Q

considered Father of American Industrial Revolution because he brought British textile technology rather legally to America

A

Samuel Slater

187
Q

7th president of the US
Known for founding the Democratic Party and his support of individual liberty
Battle of New Orleans

A

Andrew Jackson

188
Q

Frees slave in SC; a mulatto who inspired a group of slaves to seize Charlestown SC in 1822.
One betrayed him and he and his 37 followers were hanged

A

Denmark Vesey

189
Q

American inventor, clockmaker, entrepreneur, and engineer

Most famous for operating the first steam boat service in the US

A

John Fitch

190
Q

Leader of the Whig party; opposed Jackson
ran against Martin Van Buren
Webster Hayne debate 1830

A

Daniel Webster

191
Q

6th president, sought to modernize American economy, promote education, paid off national debt, and he negotiated the treaty of Ghent which ended the War of 1812

A

John Quincy Adams

192
Q

Ran against Andrew Jackson and John Quincy Adams- hated both
He represents Kentucky in HOR and Senate-leading war hawk
Invented the American system, opposed annexation of Texas
Hated democrats

A

Henry Clay

193
Q

_______: depends on population
_______: has 2 members per state

A

HOR, senate

194
Q

American politician- best known for his intense and original defense of slavery as a positive good
He pointed the south towards secession from the union

A

John C Calhoun

195
Q

8th president- democrat
Key in building organizational structure for Jacksonian democracy
His administration is largely characterized by the panic 1837 (financial crisis/profits prices wages down)

A

Martin Van Buren

196
Q

American financier who served as the third and last president of the 2nd bank of the United States

A

Nicholas Biddle

197
Q

NE teacher and author who spoke out against in humane treatment of the insane and prisoners
Studied and made reports of her findings in prisons
Sought to get this changed (she got people to separate the insane and prisoners because insane are not willingly acting on their crimes)

A

Dorothea Dix

198
Q

African American slave who led a rebellion of slaves and free blacks in South Hampton County VA on Aug 21, 1831

A

Nat Turner

199
Q

Abolitionist/published the liberator in Boston
Found the American anti-slavery society
Favored northern secession and renounced politics

A

William Lloyd Garrison

200
Q

American politician and educational reformer
Whig devoted to promoting speedy modernization
On the HOR

A

Horace Mann

201
Q

Republican against slavery in the territories

Military leader-first republican candidate for president (major party to run on a platform against slavery)

A

John Freemont

202
Q

African American social reformer/abolitionist/orator/writer/statesman
When he escaped slavery he became a leader of the abolitionist movement
Known for dazzling oratory and incisive anti-slavery writings

A

Frederick Douglass

203
Q

12 president
General in Mexican-American war
Whig
Sent by Polk to lead the army at the Rio Grande but was defeated

A

Zachary Taylor

204
Q

11th president/democrat
Leader of Jacksonian which rivaled Henry clay and the Whig party
Last strong pre-civil war president

A

James K Polk

205
Q

Novelist(Uncle Tom’s Cabin in 1852)

Book persuaded people to become anti slavery

A

Harriet Beecher Stowe

206
Q

A US army general and a unsuccessful presidential candidate of the Whig party
He served on active duty as a general longer than any other man in American history
One of the best American commanders of his time (unionist)
Thought of the anaconda plan

A

Winfield Scott

207
Q

15th president of the US

In between slavery and anti-slavery. His moderate views angered radicals in the North and South

A

James Buchanan

208
Q

14th president

Northern democrat who saw the abolitionist movement as a threat to the unity of the nation

A

Franklin Pierce

209
Q
Created Nebraska-Kansas Act 
Ran for president against Lincoln 
Thought of manifest destiny
Destroyed the compromise of 1850 (slavery controversy handled) and Missouri compromise of 1820
Indirectly created the Republican Party
A

Stephen Douglas

210
Q

African American abolitionist, humanitarian and a union spy in the civil war
13 missions to resume 70 slave family and friends using the Underground Railroad

A

Harriet Tubman

211
Q

President of the southern confederate states from 1860-1865

Struggled to form a solid government. Worked hard consolidating the southern govt and carrying out military operations

A

Jefferson Davis

212
Q

16th president of the US
Lead US into civil war
Preserved the union/abolished slavery/strengthened the federal govt/ modernize the economy

A

Abraham Lincoln

213
Q

Supporter of American Revolution, signed Declaration of Independence
Federalist
Only Supreme Court justice ever impeached
He did not like jeffersonians

A

Samuel Chase

214
Q

US Secretary of State
He was an opponent of slavery
Dominant figure of the Republican Party in its former years
Defeated by Lincoln in presidential race

A

William Seward

215
Q

Leader of radical republicans in congress
Devoted to stringent and punitive reconstruction effort
Worked toward southern blacks equality

A

Thaddeus Stevens

216
Q

General for north
Commanded army of Potomac in 1861/wouldn’t remove troops
“Tardy George”-failure to move troops to Richmond
Lincoln fired him twice

A

George McClelan

217
Q

American politician and senator

Worked to destroy the confederacy and free slaves

A

Charles Sumner

218
Q

US general in union army who was defeated at Chancellorsville by Robert E Lee

A

Joseph Hooker

219
Q

He was a general in 3 different armies
In the Confederate army he saw extensive combat
Considered by Davis to feel the finest general office before Lee

A

Albert Sidney Johnston

220
Q

Union general who led destructive march through Georgia 1864
Practitioner of total war
Eradicated morale of the southerners, cut off supplies and burned land

A

William Tecumseh Sherman

221
Q

One of the most celebrate 19th century American photographer
Portraits and documentation of the civil war
Father of photo journalism

A

Matthew Brady

222
Q

General of the union
Was not very confident in his abilities; he was beaten in most battles
President Lincoln relieved him of command and transferred him to the western theater

A

General Ambrose Burnside

223
Q

Union general-engineer involved in the construction of coastal lighthouses
Defeated General Robert e Lee at the battle of Gettysburg in 1863

A

George Meade

224
Q

Confederate general
Defeated at Antietam-made Lincoln issue proclamation
Surrendered to general grant on April 9, 1865

A

Robert E Lee

225
Q

(Little Phil)
Union general/career is most noted for his rapid rise to Major General
Associated with Ulysses S Grant
In the western theater

A

Phillip Sheridan

226
Q

1st president after civil war
Previous union general
Defeated Lee at Appomattox Courthouse which ended the civil war
During presidency-involved in several scams
Panic of 1873

A

Ulysses S Grant

227
Q

Confederate general and he was the best general after Robert E Lee

A

Stonewall Jackson

228
Q

17th president
Democrat
Came to office as the civil war concluded (impeached because he did not care about former slaves and the congress was a lot of republicans)
Acquitted in the senate by 1 vote

A

Andrew Johnson

229
Q

Who killed Lincoln

A

John Wilkes Booth