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Written by Thomas Jefferson
Signed on July 4th, 1776

The Declaration of Independence

1

What are the Bill of Rights
When were they added to the constitution?
When was the constitution written

First 10 amendments
December 15 1791
September 17 1787

2

List 1-5 Ammendments

1-freedom of religion, press, speech, assembly, petition
2- right to bear arms
3- right to not have to quarter soldiers and seizures
4- freedom from unreasonable search and seizure
5- trial by jury and due process of law freedom from self-incriminations and double jeopardy

3

List ammendments 6-15

6- speedy trial, right to be informed of charges, to be present when witnesses speak, to call defense witness, a lawyer
7- trial by jury in civil cases according to common law
8- cruel and unusual punishment, excessive bail
9- guarantee of rights not listed in constitution
10- rights of the states and people
11- prevents suits against states (out-of-states citizens)
12- choosing the president and Vice President
13- slavery abolished
14- citizenship for blacks
15- voting for black males

4

Who wrote the pledge of allegiance

Francis Bellamy

5

List all 7 continents

North America, South America, Asia, Africa, Antarctica, Europe, Australia (Asia is the biggest)

6

What are the 3 branches of government

Legislative, executive, judicial

7

Also known as the 7 years war
Fought between the British colonies (with aid from Iroquois) and New France (with aid from all other native Americans)
Fought over control of the Ohio valley

French and Indian war

8

Who was Johnathan Edwards

Theologian/revivalist preacher/philosopher during the great awakening
He was born 1703 and died 1758
Wrote sinners in the hands of an angry God

9

Who was Haym Salomen

1740-1785
Polish born American Jewish businessman who immigrated to NY during the American Revolution

10

Who was Frederick Douglass

1818-1895
Abolitionist/former slave
First black to hold U.S government rank

11

Who was Harriet Beecher Stowe

1811-1896
Wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin
Abolitionist/author of over 30 books

12

List the presidents from Washington to Johnson and their parties

Washington- federalist (non partisan)
Adams (federalist)
Jefferson (demo-repub)
Madison (demo-repub)
Monroe (demo-repub)
Quincy Adams (demo-repub)
Jackson (democratic)
Buren (democratic)
Harrison (Whig)
Tyler (Whig)
Polk (democratic)
Taylor (Whig)
Fillmore (Whig)
Pierce (democratic)
Buchanan (democratic)
Lincoln (republican)
Johnson (democratic)

13

In colonial America, what were the NE, Middle, and Southern Colonies

NE- Rhode Island, Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire
Middle- New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Delaware,
Southern- North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Maryland, Virginia

14

Strong central government
Favored national bank
Constitution
Hamilton, James Madison, John Jay
Supported by wealthy residents of the seaboard, men like Washington+Franklin
Controlled the press throughout the 1790s

Federalists

15

What were some advantages of the Union during the civil war?

Population (22,300,000)
# of states (24)
Industry (110,000 factories made textiles, ammunition, etc [80% of the industry of the nation])
Railroad miles (21,973 miles)
Food (hardtack, dried/salted pork, cornmeal, coffee, etc.)
Financial resources (revenue from export, effective banks, income tax)
Political leaders (Lincoln and Douglass)
Navy (700 ships, blockade)

16

What were some of the advantages of the confederacy during the civil war

Military leaders (Robert E Lee, Stonewall Jackson, J.E.B. Stuart, military colleges)
Calvary (riding horses was common, West Point graduates)
Home territory (familiar surroundings, knew the land [battles fought in south mostly/defensive war])
Supply lines (shorter/less railroads)
Cause (wanted to secede and preserve slavery- they also fought for states' rights)
Foreign aid/intervention- inspired by want of foreign aid, motivated because British built ships

17

Anti Federalists-
What government did they favor?
Leaders?
Supported by?
Feel about the constitution?

Favored a weak central government and stronger state govt
Samuel Adams, Patrick Henry, Richard Henry lee
Backcountry farmers and the poorest classes
Felt the constitution was anti-democratic and favored the wealthy

18

Democratic-republican
What kind of govt did they favor
Who started this party
Views of constitution
Other desires

Weak central govt
Thomas Jefferson in the 1790s
Strict interpretation of the constitution (unlike Federalists)
Favored the agricultural aspect of economy and disproved of special rights for upper classes
Wanted voting rights for all white educated males

19

The Democratic Party
Leader?
Where did they grow out of?
Favored what kind of government

Andrew Jackson
Jefferson's demo-repub
Strong state govt and weak central govt

20

Pro-bank, pro-tariff, and pro-internal improvements
Formed in opposition to the Jacksonian Federalists
First members include Henry clay, John C Calhoun, and Webster
Agreed on little but opposition to Jackson and his policies
Welcomed the market economy, drawing support from manufacturers, planers, merchants, and bankers

The Whig Party

21

The Republican Party
Where did it form and why
Where was it banned

In the Midwest (Wisconsin and Michigan) by members of all parties in opposition to slavery
Banned below the Mason-Dixon Line because of anti-slavery views

22

The Liberty Party was also known as what
What did it hope to do

Antislavery party (1840-1848)
Hoped to eventually abolish slavery in the long run but immediately halt the expansion of it

23

Describe the free-soil party

Antislavery party (1848-1854)
Opposed the expansion of slavery into new territories because it would limit opportunities for free-laborers

24

Describe the election of 1800

John Adams (federalist) and Thomas Jefferson (demo-repub)
Jefferson is elected president and power transfers from the Federalists to the demo-repubs

25

Describe the election of 1824

John Q Adams vs William H Crawford (both republican)
Clay was eliminated, but as speaker of the house oversaw the group who would elect the president
Adams is elected, though many felt it was only because of Henry Clay's behind the scenes work

26

Describe the election of 1860

Stephen A Douglas (democrat) vs Abraham Lincoln (republican) vs. John Bell (constitutional Union) vs. Breckenridge (democrat)
Lincoln is elected, leading to the beginning of abolition and the civil war

27

The Case of Marbury vs. Madison

Established the principle of "judicial review" (supreme court has final authority to determine constitutionality)

28

The case of McCulloh vs. Maryland

Strengthened federal authority
Upheld constitutionality of the US Bank by saying that MD did not have the power to tax the bank

29

The case of Gibbons vs Ogden

Suit over whether NY could grant monopoly to a ferry operating on interstate waters
Ruled congress alone could regulate interstate commerce

30

Case of Cherokee Nation vs Georgia

Cherokee nation approaches Supreme Court to challenge Georgia's court declaration that the Cherokee tribal council was illegal and asserted their power over native rights and land
Ruled in favor of Cherokee but Jackson ignored the decision (IRA)

31

The case of commonwealth vs Hunt

Strengthened labor movement by upholding legality of unions

32

Case of dred Scott vs Stanford

Extended slavery protection by saying congress could not outlaw slavery
Declared slaves property, not citizens

33

Appalachians to the Mississippi was Midwest land acquired from _________

Natives

34

What was the Louisiana purchase

Acquisition of Louisiana Territory from France, doubling the US in size
15 million or .04 cents an acre

35

How did the US acquire Florida

Adams-Onis treaty (1819)
Spain gave the US Florida, the US gave up claims to Texas

36

Mexican Cession

Stretched the US across the continent, secured Texas, etc. at the end of the Mexican war

37

What was the Gadsden Purchase

Additional land from Mexico for $10 million
Intended to build southern trains-continental railroad

38

How did the US acquire Alaska

Purchased from Russia

39

What was the Peggy Eaton affair

It was a scandalous affair involving members of Jackson's cabinet members and their wives
It began with Margaret O'Neale who, supposedly had an affair with John Eaton while her husband was away

40

Describe King Phillip's War

Series of assaults by Metacom (King Phillip) on New England settlements
Slowed westward expansion for decades

41

Describe Bacon's Rebellion

Uprising of VA backcountry farmers and indentured servants in response to Governor Berkeley's refusal to protect them from Indian attacks

42

Describe Pontiac's rebellion

Ottawa Chief's attempt to drive British from Ohio
Crushed by troops who gave out blankets with smallpox

43

Describe the French and Indian war

9 year war between Britain and France in US
Expulsion of France from mainland and sparked 7 years war in Europe

44

Who were the Paxton boys

Armed march on Philadelphia by Scots-Irish to protect Quaker's lenient Native American policies

45

Uprising in backcountry North Carolina against unfair taxation and control of affairs by seaboard elite

Regulators

46

US gains independence in what war

Revolutionary war 1775-1783

47

(Shay's Rebellion/XYZ Affair) was an uprising of western Massachusetts debtors seeking lower taxes and end to foreclosure of farms
Inspired fears of "mob rule"

Shay's rebellion

48

What was the XYZ affair

Diplomatic conflict between France and US when US messengers are asked to pay bribe to meet with French foreign minister
Undeclared war in the Caribbean

49

Who were the Barbary Pirates

Often plunder and blackmail merchant ships in Mediterranean

50

Describe the war of 1812

Fought between Britain and US over trade and impressment issues
Ended in draw, but US gains respect in Europe

51

What was the nullification crisis

Showdown between Andrew Jackson and SC legislature
SC null and voided 1832 tariff and threatened secession
Compromise reached by Henry clay in 1833

52

Series of clashes between US and Canada lumberjacks in northern Maine, resolved with boundary in 1842

Aroostook war

53

A war with Mexico 1846-1848 over territorial issues

Mexican-American war

54

Fought within US between the north and south over issues such as unionity and slavery
1861-1865

Civil war

55

The first battles of the revolutionary war were at _________________________, fought outside of Boston
Colonial militia stands their ground and the British retreat to Boston

Lexington and concord

56

George Washington surprised and captured sleeping Hessians, raising morale at Trenton
This sets the stage for the victory at Princeton
What battle?

Trenton-Princeton

57

Colonial victory in upstate NY
Helped secure French support for the revolution
What battle?

Saratoga

58

George Washington, with help from the French army, besieges Cornwallis at ______ while the French naval fleet blocks reinforcements
British surrender

Yorktown

59

War of 1812 battle
Resulted in the defeat of Shawnee chief Tenskwata (The Prophet) at the hands of William Henry Harrison
Causes his brother, Tecumseh, to ally with the British against the US

Tippecanoe

60

The Battle of New Orleans
When was it
Who won
What did it do

January 1815
Victory of the US forces against the British
Restored US confidence and fueled nationalism; last battle of the War of 1812

61

Mexican-American war battle, beginning of Scott's expedition

Veracruz

62

Scott captures ___________________ ending the Mexican-American War

Mexico City

63

What was the first major battle of the civil war
Who won
What did it end

First battle of bull run
South
Ended North's view of a swift victory

64

Battle of Shiloh

April 1862; bloody civil war battle on Tennessee-Mississippi border
23,000 deaths and union victory

65

Describe the battle of Antietam

September 1862; important civil war battle
Ended in a draw, but gave Lincoln the "victory" he needed to issue to emancipation proclamation
Highest death total for one day battle
Close to 26,000 deaths
Lee's first northern invasion

66

1863
2 month siege of Confederate fort on the Mississippi River in Tennessee
Fell to Grant in July 1863, giving union control of the river

Vicksburg

67

Describe the battle of Gettysburg

July 1863
Battle in Pennsylvania that ended in Union victory
Confederacy will never invade or defeat the North again

68

What was the Appomatox Courthouse

Site where Robert E Lee surrenders to Ulysses S Grant in April of 1865

69

What is the difference between the treaty of Paris of 1763 and that of 1783

1763- signed after Britain's victory over France and Spain in the 7 years war
1783- ended revolutionary war. Britain formally recognizes US independence and ceded territory east of Mississippi. US promised to repay loyalist debts

70

The __________________ Treaty was negotiated by John Jay to avoid war with Britain. British promise to evacuate outposts on US soil, repay damages for seized vessels
US promise to follow trade laws and repay PreRevolutionary war debts

Jay

71

This treaty was signed in San Lorenzo de El Escorial on October 27, 1795 and established intentions of friendship between the United States and Spain
Gave US the Mississippi and Florida

Pinckney Treaty

72

Treaty of __________ was signed in 1815 and ended the war of 1812 in a draw. It restored borders but failed to address US grievances

Ghent

73

1817
Signed with Britain to establish strict limits on navy in the Great Lakes
First step in demilitarization of the Canadian border

Rush-Bagot Agreement

74

What was the Adams-Onis Treaty

Spain ceded Florida to US, US gave up claims in Texas (1819)

75

What treaty settled the Canadian border in 1842

Webster-Ashburton treaty

76

Treaty of Guadelupe

1848
Ended war with Mexico, Mexico gives land from Texas to Oregon in return for 18.25 million

77

The _____________________ of 1649 was passed in Maryland
It guaranteed toleration to all Christians but decreed death penalty for Jews and atheists (who denied Christ)
This attracted Catholics

Toleration Act

78

The _____________________ Acts were a series of laws passed (beginning in 1651) to regulate colonial shipping; these acts provided only English ships would trade, all colonial goods must pass through England

Navigation

79

The ____________________ of 1763 prevented settling west of the Appalachians due to Pontiac's uprising. It contributed to the colonies's resentment of Britain

Proclamation Act

80

What was the sugar act

1764
Tax on imported sugar
First tax on colonists by Britain, lowered due to protests

81

What was the stamp act

1765
Tax on paper goods that was repealed in 1766 due to colonial protest
Developed "no taxation without representation"

82

1766
Passed along with repeal of stamp act to reaffirm Parliament's power over the colonies

Declaratory act

83

Townshend acts

Indirect taxes on glass, white lead, paper, paint, and tea to pay colonial Governors
Angered colonists

84

What were the intolerable/coercive acts

Retaliation to Boston tea party; closing Boston port, revoking Massachusetts colonial charter, expand ding quartering act
Not repealed until colonists pay Britain damage reparations
Colonists respond with first continental congress

85

The __________ Act was in 1744 and it allowed the French Quebec residents to retain traditional political and religious institutions, extended province to Ohio River
Colonists mistakenly thought it was a response to Tea Party

Quebec

86

The _________________ of 1789 organized the federal legal system, established the Supreme Court, federal district and circuit courts, and attorney general

Judiciary act

87

The ____________ of 1785 was the selling of land in the Old NW and earmarked proceeds towards paying nationals debt

Land ordinance

88

The _________________ of 1787 was a policy for administering the NW territories, including path to statehood and forbade slavery in the territories

Northwest ordinance

89

What were Hamilton's financial acts

Alexander Hamilton, first secretary of the treasury, makes financial plans

90

What were the alien and sedition acts

1798-passed by federalist congress raising residency requirement for citizenship to 14 years and granting president right to deport (alien)
1798- effort to clamp down Jeffersonian opposition; anyone convicted of defaming officials or policies were liable to prison and a fine (sedition)

91

What were the Virginia and Kentucky resolves

1798-1799, secretly drafted by Jefferson and Madison, argued states could nullify legislation they deemed unconstitutional

92

Describe the Missouri Compromise of 1820

Allowed Missouri to enter as a slave state and preserved the balance between the north and south by prohibiting slavery in Maine, Louisiana purchase, north of 36,30

93

The 1828 ___________________________ placed unprecedentedly high duties on imports
Southerners opposed this, saying it hurt farmers, but were forced to pay higher price for manufacturers

Tariff of abominations

94

Nullified in SC, leading to the Nullification crisis

1832 tariff

95

What was passed to resolve the nullification crisis

Force bill 1833 compromise tariff
Taxes lowered gradually over 10 years (to 1816 levels)
Force bill allowed the president to use military to collect tariffs

96

The _____________ prohibited debate/action in Antislavery appeals; passed every year for 8 years until overturned with the help of John Quincy Adams

Gag Rule

97

Passed by several Northern US states to counter fugitive slave acts
Some allowed jury or forbid authority from cooperating in capture

Personal liberty laws

98

Describe the conditions of the compromise of 1850

Admitted Cali as a free state, opened New Mexico and Utah territory to popular sovereignty, ended slave trade in DC and introduced harsher fugitive slave law
Opposed in both the north and south, did not settle slavery dispute

99

The ________________ Act in 1854 said slavery should be decided by popular sovereignty in Kansas and Nebraska, revoking Missouri Compromise
Introduced by Stephen Douglass in effort to bring Nebraska into Union to pave way for northern transcontinental railroad

Kansas-Nebraska

100

What was the Wade-Davis Bill

Passed by republicans in response to Lincoln's 10% plan
Required 50% of a state's voters pledge allegiance to the Union, set stronger safeguards for emancipation
Reflected divisions between the president and congress

101

Describe the time occurrence and the details of the great awakening

1730s and 1740s- a religious revival that swept the colonies
Minsters (Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield) emphasize on direct, emotive spirituality

102

The ______________ ___________ ____ ______________ was a plan proposed in Albany Congress in 1754 to unite the colonies
Included: a grand council and president-general

Albany Plan of Union

103

Who were the Sons of Liberty

A patriotic group during Revolution
Significant role on Stamp Act repeal and enforcing non importation agreements

104

_______________________ ____ __________________: Began in 1772. Local Committees in Massachusetts (later in all colonies) to maintain opposition to British policies through exchange of letters and pamphlets

Committees of Correspondence

105

__________ ______ _______________: 1765-assembly of delegates from 9 colonies in NYC to draft petition for repeal of stamp act
Eased sectional suspicions and promoted unity

Stamp act congress

106

What was the first continental congress?
What was the second continental congress?

1st- 1774 meeting of delegates from 12/13 (no Georgia) colonies in Philadelphia in response to Intolerable Acts. established Association, called for Boycott of British goods
2nd-1775-1781 body of delegates of all colonies. Drafted the declaration and managed colonial war effort

107

The ______________ was from 1814-1815 and was a federalist convention from 5 NE states who opposed the War of 1812 and resented southern and western strength in congress

Hartford Convention

108

1806 highway
First built entirely on federal funds, helpful to economy

National road

109

1825 NY canal that links Lake Erie to Hudson River
Lowered shipping cost, fueling economic boom and helping Northwest farming

Erie Canal

110

Describe the events of the second great awakening

Revival (in early 19th century) characterized by "camp meetings" and widespread conversion
Democratization of religions as they vie for members

111

"_______________": Polk's slogan that led him to victory; wanted expansion to northern Oregon border, the 54,40 line

54,40 or Fight

112

What was the Seneca Falls Convention

1848 (July)-first modern women's rights convention
Declaration of sentiments and 11 resolutions

113

The ____________ were religious followers of Joseph Smith. They were a communal, oligarchic order in the 1830s
"Church of Jesus Christ" "Church of Latter Day Saints"
Eventually migrated west to Utah

Mormons

114

The ________ began in 1770 and named for lively dance worship
They emphasized simple, communal, living and celibacy
Brought from England by Mother Ann Lee

Shakers

115

1841-1846 transcendental commune founded by intellectuals; emphasized plain living and pursuing life of mine
Fell into debt and burned 1846

Brook Farm

116

What is popular sovereignty

During civil war era, allowed certain states to decide if they want to be slave or free

117

What was John Brown's Raid

Raid on Arsenal at Harper's Ferry, Virginia in 1859 (Antislavery attack)
brown was captured and executed and this alarmed the south

118

_________________: 1858 declaration that since slavery could not exist without protection laws, territorial legislatures, not Supreme Court, would have the final say
Argued by Stephen Douglass in response to Lincoln's "Freeport Question"

Freeport Doctrine

119

Attacked by South April 1861, beginning the civil war

Fort Sumter

120

______________ were northern democrats who obstructed war effort by attacking Lincoln, draft, and emancipation

Copperheads

121

What was the Alabama

1862-1864 British built and manned confederate warship; raided union shipping during civil war

122

_________: Union ironclad, successes bring an end to the use of wooden ships
_________: (above answer's) Confederate counterpart

Monitor, Merrimack

123

Helped establish Jamestown, VA and was associated with POwhatan and his daughter, Pocahontas
Leader of VA colony 1607-1609, led exploration along rivers of Virginia and Chesapeake

John Smith

124

Early settler; husband of Pocahontas and father of tobacco

John Rolfe

125

Daughter of Powhatan and wife of John Rolfe
"Saved" John Smith to show her father's desire for good relations

Pocahontas

126

Father of Pocahontas, Indian chief in VA who meets the first settlers

Powhatan

127

Second governor of the Plymouth colony
Developed private land ownership, helped the colony out of debt, survive droughts, crop failures and Indian attacks

William Bradford

128

Patuxet man who helped pilgrims in Massachusetts survive (taught them to plant, etc.)

Squanto

129

Wampanoag Chief, signed treaty with Plymouth Pilgrims and helped them celebrate the first Thanksgiving

Massasoit

130

Metacom; made a pan Indian alliance and assaulted villages ("King Philip's War")
Attacked 52 Puritan towns before beheaded and displayed in Plymouth

King Philip

131

Well-born Englishman; joined army and became Quaker
Earned land from the King-Pennsylvania (Penn's Woodland) to be asylum for his people, experiment with government ideas and make a profit

William Penn

132

Lord Baltimore; Catholic nobleman, granted land, named Maryland
Wanted to achieve wealth and create haven for Catholics

George Calvert

133

Wealthy Englishman who became the Bay Colony's first governor
Believed he had a calling to lead a new religious experiment
"City Upon a Hill"

John Winthrop

134

Puritan minister in Boston, wrote 400+ religious works
Spread fear of witches, led to Salem witch trials

Cotton Mather

135

English military man; est. headquarters in Boston
Hated because of hostility towards Church and enforcement of Navigation Laws

Edmund Andros

136

Founded Georgia's first settlement (Savannah in 1733)
GA's first governor

James Oglethorpe

137

Ottawa chief that led several tribes in Great Lakes area in war against the British (Pontiac's Rebellion)

Pontiac

138

King of England 1760-1820
Wanted to be active and involved in colonies, unlike those before him

George III

139

British leader 1757-1758, led and won war against Quebec

William Pitt

140

British politician sympathetic towards colonies
Opposed early feminist movements, thought women were animals

Edmund Burke

141

King George III's prime minister, passed Sugar Act and Stamp Act
Believed in reducing financial burden in Britain by taxing colonists

George Grenville

142

Wrote "Virginia Resolves"
Famous orator who urged colonists to fight; "give me liberty or give me death"

Patrick Henry

143

3rd president; drafted the Declaration of Independence
Founded the Democratic-Republican party

Thomas Jefferson

144

1st president; leader of the continental army

George Washington

145

Colonial hero
Signed declarations, wrote "Poor Richard's Almanac," served as post-master of Philadelphia

Benjamin Franklin

146

Second president of the US, first Vice President
Supported the revolution

John Adams

147

Organized the committees of correspondence
Affiliated with Sons of Liberty

Samuel Adams

148

Led moderates at second continental congress; "Letters from a farmer"

John Dickinson

149

Wealthy Massachusetts merchant, first to sign Declaration

John Hancock

150

Royal governor of Massachusetts who left office after the Boston Tea Party
Personal letters spread by Sam Adams to anger colonists

Thomas Hutchinson

151

British General who tried to reach stockpiled weapons at Lexington and Concord

Thomas Gage

152

British General; captured Fort Ticonderoga but was stopped by Arnold near the Hudson

John Burgoyne

153

British soldier and commander in the South; defeated Gates at Camden but surrendered at Yorktown, ultimately ending war

Charles Cornwallis

154

British military commander, succeeded Thomas Gage
Left forces to Burgoyne, leading to their defeat

William Howe

155

American General, turned traitor in 1780 and joined the British cause

Benedict Arnold

156

US soldier who was captured and executed by the British army

Nathan Hale

157

Soldier that helped capture Fort Ticonderoga from the British

Ethan Allen

158

Wrote "Common Sense" and helped fuel the revolution

Thomas Paine

159

Believed all government is "created for the people, by the people," and "all people have the right to life, liberty and property"
Enlightenment thinker whose ideas were in the declaration

John Locke

160

Led troops in Boston and NY, succeeded Horatio Gates and weakened British army so Cornwallis had to abandon plans

Nathaniel Greene

161

Served in British army during French and Indian war, then US during the revolution
Forced British surrender at Saratoga

Horatio Gates

162

Swamp fox; American guerrilla who led others to recapture SC

Francis Marion

163

Federalist; first treasurer of state who designed financial program that helped US out of debt.
Established national bank and excise/revenue taxes

Alexander Hamilton

164

Proposed the Virginia Plan in support of large states; helped write federalist papers, 4th president

James Madison

165

Only African American during this period to write an almanac

Benjamin Banneker

166

1st Chief Justice of the supreme court

John Jay

167

The 1st secretary of war

Henry Knox

168

"Citizen Genet", Frenchman who moved to USA to make an alliance with France, but was deported

Edmond Genet

169

US painter known for portraits of people such as Paul Revere and John Hancock

John Singleton Copley

170

Inventor of the cotton gin (1793) and interchangeable parts

Eli Whitney

171

Supreme Court justice who made many decisions influential to the US

John Marshall

172

"The Chancellor"; administered presidential oath to George Washington

Robert Livingston

173

Lewis and Clark expedition in 1804-1806

William Clark and Merriwether Lewis

174

Shoshone guide and interpreter of Lewis and Clark expedition 1804-1806

Sacajawea

175

Installed steam engine and created first steam boat during transportation revolution

Robert Fulton

176

Explorer who led Pike expedition to explore Louisiana purchase

Zebulon Pike

177

Third Vice President under Thomas Jefferson

Aaron Burr

178

Corrupt governor of Louisiana Territory, allied with Burr to separate Western US and expand through attacks
Acquitted by Madison and fled to Europe

James Wilkinson

179

"The Prophet's" brother, Indian chief who allies with British in war of 1812

Tecumseh

180

Wrote "The Star Spangled Banner"

Francis Scott Key

181

Transcendentalists writers

Henry David Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson

182

Walt Whitman was an American (war veteran/poet)

Poet

183

Who wrote the legend of sleep hallow

Washington Irving (American author)

184

The 9th president of the US, first to die in office (after only one month)

William Henry Harrison

185

Oliver Perry was an American (naval commander/international spy)

Naval commander

186

considered Father of American Industrial Revolution because he brought British textile technology rather legally to America

Samuel Slater

187

7th president of the US
Known for founding the Democratic Party and his support of individual liberty
Battle of New Orleans

Andrew Jackson

188

Frees slave in SC; a mulatto who inspired a group of slaves to seize Charlestown SC in 1822.
One betrayed him and he and his 37 followers were hanged

Denmark Vesey

189

American inventor, clockmaker, entrepreneur, and engineer
Most famous for operating the first steam boat service in the US

John Fitch

190

Leader of the Whig party; opposed Jackson
ran against Martin Van Buren
Webster Hayne debate 1830

Daniel Webster

191

6th president, sought to modernize American economy, promote education, paid off national debt, and he negotiated the treaty of Ghent which ended the War of 1812

John Quincy Adams

192

Ran against Andrew Jackson and John Quincy Adams- hated both
He represents Kentucky in HOR and Senate-leading war hawk
Invented the American system, opposed annexation of Texas
Hated democrats

Henry Clay

193

_______: depends on population
_______: has 2 members per state

HOR, senate

194

American politician- best known for his intense and original defense of slavery as a positive good
He pointed the south towards secession from the union

John C Calhoun

195

8th president- democrat
Key in building organizational structure for Jacksonian democracy
His administration is largely characterized by the panic 1837 (financial crisis/profits prices wages down)

Martin Van Buren

196

American financier who served as the third and last president of the 2nd bank of the United States

Nicholas Biddle

197

NE teacher and author who spoke out against in humane treatment of the insane and prisoners
Studied and made reports of her findings in prisons
Sought to get this changed (she got people to separate the insane and prisoners because insane are not willingly acting on their crimes)

Dorothea Dix

198

African American slave who led a rebellion of slaves and free blacks in South Hampton County VA on Aug 21, 1831

Nat Turner

199

Abolitionist/published the liberator in Boston
Found the American anti-slavery society
Favored northern secession and renounced politics

William Lloyd Garrison

200

American politician and educational reformer
Whig devoted to promoting speedy modernization
On the HOR

Horace Mann

201

Republican against slavery in the territories
Military leader-first republican candidate for president (major party to run on a platform against slavery)

John Freemont

202

African American social reformer/abolitionist/orator/writer/statesman
When he escaped slavery he became a leader of the abolitionist movement
Known for dazzling oratory and incisive anti-slavery writings

Frederick Douglass

203

12 president
General in Mexican-American war
Whig
Sent by Polk to lead the army at the Rio Grande but was defeated

Zachary Taylor

204

11th president/democrat
Leader of Jacksonian which rivaled Henry clay and the Whig party
Last strong pre-civil war president

James K Polk

205

Novelist(Uncle Tom's Cabin in 1852)
Book persuaded people to become anti slavery

Harriet Beecher Stowe

206

A US army general and a unsuccessful presidential candidate of the Whig party
He served on active duty as a general longer than any other man in American history
One of the best American commanders of his time (unionist)
Thought of the anaconda plan

Winfield Scott

207

15th president of the US
In between slavery and anti-slavery. His moderate views angered radicals in the North and South

James Buchanan

208

14th president
Northern democrat who saw the abolitionist movement as a threat to the unity of the nation

Franklin Pierce

209

Created Nebraska-Kansas Act
Ran for president against Lincoln
Thought of manifest destiny
Destroyed the compromise of 1850 (slavery controversy handled) and Missouri compromise of 1820
Indirectly created the Republican Party

Stephen Douglas

210

African American abolitionist, humanitarian and a union spy in the civil war
13 missions to resume 70 slave family and friends using the Underground Railroad

Harriet Tubman

211

President of the southern confederate states from 1860-1865
Struggled to form a solid government. Worked hard consolidating the southern govt and carrying out military operations

Jefferson Davis

212

16th president of the US
Lead US into civil war
Preserved the union/abolished slavery/strengthened the federal govt/ modernize the economy

Abraham Lincoln

213

Supporter of American Revolution, signed Declaration of Independence
Federalist
Only Supreme Court justice ever impeached
He did not like jeffersonians

Samuel Chase

214

US Secretary of State
He was an opponent of slavery
Dominant figure of the Republican Party in its former years
Defeated by Lincoln in presidential race

William Seward

215

Leader of radical republicans in congress
Devoted to stringent and punitive reconstruction effort
Worked toward southern blacks equality

Thaddeus Stevens

216

General for north
Commanded army of Potomac in 1861/wouldn't remove troops
"Tardy George"-failure to move troops to Richmond
Lincoln fired him twice

George McClelan

217

American politician and senator
Worked to destroy the confederacy and free slaves

Charles Sumner

218

US general in union army who was defeated at Chancellorsville by Robert E Lee

Joseph Hooker

219

He was a general in 3 different armies
In the Confederate army he saw extensive combat
Considered by Davis to feel the finest general office before Lee

Albert Sidney Johnston

220

Union general who led destructive march through Georgia 1864
Practitioner of total war
Eradicated morale of the southerners, cut off supplies and burned land

William Tecumseh Sherman

221

One of the most celebrate 19th century American photographer
Portraits and documentation of the civil war
Father of photo journalism

Matthew Brady

222

General of the union
Was not very confident in his abilities; he was beaten in most battles
President Lincoln relieved him of command and transferred him to the western theater

General Ambrose Burnside

223

Union general-engineer involved in the construction of coastal lighthouses
Defeated General Robert e Lee at the battle of Gettysburg in 1863

George Meade

224

Confederate general
Defeated at Antietam-made Lincoln issue proclamation
Surrendered to general grant on April 9, 1865

Robert E Lee

225

(Little Phil)
Union general/career is most noted for his rapid rise to Major General
Associated with Ulysses S Grant
In the western theater

Phillip Sheridan

226

1st president after civil war
Previous union general
Defeated Lee at Appomattox Courthouse which ended the civil war
During presidency-involved in several scams
Panic of 1873

Ulysses S Grant

227

Confederate general and he was the best general after Robert E Lee

Stonewall Jackson

228

17th president
Democrat
Came to office as the civil war concluded (impeached because he did not care about former slaves and the congress was a lot of republicans)
Acquitted in the senate by 1 vote

Andrew Johnson

229

Who killed Lincoln

John Wilkes Booth