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Flashcards in APUSH Final Exam Review Deck (193):
1

Why was period 1 1491-1607

1491- 1 year prior to European contact
1607- first permanent English settlement (Jamestown)

2

Exchange of goods, ideas, diseases, and people between Europe, Africa, and the Americas

Colombian Exchange

3

Where was maize grown

Southwest US and Mexico

4

The Great Plains and Great Basin were located in _______ modern day US and they led a ________ lifestyle largely because ...

Central
Nomadic (hunters), they lacked resources

5

What was the impact of the Columbian Exchange on America?
Europe?
Africa?

Disease impacted natives, guns and horses impact native life, radically mixed population (mestizo [NA and European])
Potatoes and maize lead to population growth and more capitalistic ideas
Slave trade (middle passage) (Spanish and Portuguese first countries to begin trade in West Africa)

6

Royal grant of land by the Spanish crown to settlers who promised to Christianize natives
Replaced by African slave labor

Encomienda system

7

Independence, self-rule

Autonomy (Africans and Natives seek to preserve their autonomy)

8

Period 2 spans from 1607-1754
Why?

Jamestown- beginning of the 7 years war

9

Who established NE colonies
Describe them briefly

Puritans
Like-minded community
Mix of agriculture and commerce

10

What two people were banished form NE colonies

Roger Williams, Anne Hutchison

11

Describe Middle colonies

Cereal crops- religious, ethnically, demographically diverse
Most diverse/accepting

12

What were the Chespeake colonies and what were they most known for

Maryland and Virginia
TOBACCO
Relied on indentured servants until 1676 (Bacon's Rebellion) then moved to African slaves

13

Southern colonies/West Indies characteristics

Staple crops (sugar) heavy use of slave labor
Africans made up majority of population

14

Native American rebellion in SW US
Spanish sought to end native practices inconsistent with Christianity
Spanish kicked out for 10 years and when they came back they advocated religious assimilation

Pueblo Revolt

15

Process of colonies taking on British characteristics
Seen through trans-Atlantic print culture, commercial ties, etc

Anglicization

16

Focus on reason and intelligence
Individuals begin to question government (monarchies)

Enlightenment

17

Montesquieu advocated for _______ branches of gov't during the enlightenment and ________ called for consent of the government

Three, Locke

18

What is mercantilism

Economic theory-goal to make money for mother country
Positive balance of trade that favors mother country

19

Period three is 1754-1800. Why?

1754- beginning of 7 years war in 1756
1800- Jefferson's election

20

The 7 years' war was the ______ and the ______ vs the _______ and the ________

British/colonists
French/natives

21

Who started the 7 years war? Where?
Who won?

George Washington, Ohio Valley (Pitt)
Britain won and France is removed from North America

22

France leaving North America and Britain taking their land is a _________ event
Why

Watershed
Britain ends salutary neglect and they begin to tax colonies with leads to colonial resistance

23

The 7 years' war end in ______

1763

24

Explain two new taxes and the colonists' response

Stamp act- stamp act congress, repeal of stamp act, Declaratory act (they could pass whatever acts they wanted in the future)

25

Who wrote Common Sense and what was the main purpose of the writing

Thomas Paine (enlightenment thinker)
Urged the colonists to break away from Great Britain

26

Who wrote Declaration of Independence
Whom was it inspired by
What was it

Jefferson, Adams, Franklin
Common sense (Paine) and enlightenment thinkers (Locke)
List of grievances against King George III

27

When was the American Revolution
The US won in spite of.....
Because of...

1775-1783
Loyalist opposition, military and financial advantages by GB support from France/Europe, ideological commitment

28

Briefly describe the characteristics of the Articles of Confederation

Weak central government, could not tax, no national military, 9 out of 13 states need to agree to pass law, 13 required to amend articles

29

One of the successes of the articles of confederation was the ____________________ that admitted states into the union with 60,000 inhabitants. It outlawed slavery in NW territory and established public education

NW Land Ordinance

30

Too many problems with the articles of confederation resulted in the creation of the __________________
Describe it

Constitution
A lot of credit goes to James Madison, Based on federalism and separation of powers, series of compromises with limits on national powers
Written in 1787

31

Describe the compromises present in the constitution

Great Compromise- House (based on population), Senate had equal representation for each state
This combined NJ and Virginia plans
3/5 compromise- 60% of slavery would count as population towards state
Slave trade compromise outlawed international slave trade after 1808

32

Did the constitution deal with slavery?

No-postponed a solution to the problems of slavery

33

A list of rights guaranteed to individuals added after the constitutional convention
Why?

Bill of Rights
Satisfy the anti-federalist so they would ratify the constitution

34

What are some of the impacts of the ideals of the Declaration of Independence and the American Revolution

French Revolution (inspired by enlightenment ideas)
Divisions between Jefferson and Hamilton
Haiti and Latin America experience rebellions as well

35

GW Farewell address warned against what

Foreign alliances, political parties (tensions between Britain and France helped lead to political parties)

36

Tensions with Britain and France cause political parties
How

Hamilton thought they should stay out of it but Jefferson thought they should help France (they helped us in REV War)

37

What was republican motherhood (effects)

Encouraged women to raise children and instill republican values in their families
Women gained more access to education

38

Period 4 is from 1800-1848
Why

1800- Jefferson elected
1848- Seneca Falls Convention

39

First political parties formed in response to Hamiton's financial Plan and the French Revolution

Democratic-republican, federalist

40

Federalist characteristics

Upper-class, loose interpretation of constitution, pro British (trade), favored merchants, liked BUS (Hamiltonians)

41

Characteristics of Democratic-Republicans

(Jeffersonians), commoners, strict interpretation, pro-French, favored farmers, disliked BUS

42

When were democrats formed?
Characteristics?
Whigs?

In response to "King Andrew I"
Party of common man, white male suffrage, spoils system, low tariffs (democrats down)
Whigs: favor tariffs,, strong Congress, internal improvements, favored BUS

43

The Louisiana Purchase was in ______ and it marked the beginning of _______________
The US _______ in size. How did it change Jefferson

1803, manifest destiny, doubled
He went from strict to loose interpretation to justify buying land

44

The Supreme Court helped assert _______ power over state laws and determined the meaning of the _________

Federal, Constitution

45

In 1803 Marbury vs Madison, the Supreme Court established the policy of _________________ (federal power over state laws)
What court case shows this

Judicial review
Gibbons vs. Ogden- Supreme Court ruled that federal government and not states ruled interstate trade (trade on River between NY and NJ)

46

Slavery was defended by people such as __________ as a _________
Give some reasons for slavery

John C Calhoun
Positive good
Saving their souls
Cradling the graves (Medicare and homes)
Cotton gin
Economy needs slavery

47

Focused on secular reform, especially abolitionism, and women's rights (Seneca Falls)

Inspired people to achieve perfection

Second Great Awakening

48

____________ is the fear of foreigners which is similar to _____

Xenophobia, nativism

49

Describe and/or identify one example
Textile machinery
Interchangeable parts
Canal
Railroad?
Telegraph?
Agricultural inventions?

Textile machinery
Allowed boats against current
Eli Whitney
Erie Canal connect NYC and Chicago (shipping)
The 1840s, faster shipment of goods and people
Spread info more quickly
Steel plow, McCormick reaper

50

The __________ system was Henry Clay's system that sought to unify the national economy
The three parts were

American
BUS, tariff to fund internal improvements and protect American businesses

51

American system did not benefit ________

South (would not industrialize)

52

Migrants from Europe during Period 4 include _______ in cities and ___________ on the frontier as Farmers. Both groups mostly settled in the ____ and ____

Irish, Germans
East, Midwest

53

Migrants from Europe in Period 4 led to ....

Interdependence between Northeast and old Northwest (so many people going there)

54

Transformation in how goods were produced- more outside the home; an increase in technology and transportation as well

Market Revolution

55

The American system called for national bank, tariffs, and internal improvements. These became the major political issues of the time as ________________trumped national concerns

Regional issues

56

When the federal government attempted to assert authorities over states, how did states resist

Hartford Convention, Nullification Crisis

57

The ___________________ was a anti-slave compromise passed in 1820

Missouri Compromise

58

_________________: proposed the gradual emancipation of slaves in MO; never passed

Tallmadge Amendment

59

What were the three parts of the Missouri Compromise
What does it apply to

MO added as a slave state, ME added as a free state, 36''30' above free below slave
Only applies to Louisiana purchase

60

The Missouri Compromise is eventually repealed by the _______________ and Dred Scott Decision

Kansas-Nebraska Act

61

Period 5 spans from 1844-1877
Why

1844- election of James K Polk (height of manifest destiny)
1877- End of Reconstruction

62

The belief that it was the US's God-given right to expand
It was based on a belief of..

Manifest destiny
White racial superiority and American culture superiority

63

The election of 1844 Clay vs Polk focused heavily on

Manifest destiny (Polk was for it, Clay was not)

64

The Mexican-American war could be seen as an example of manifest destiny
The US won and gained the ____________
The ______________ Proviso proposed that slavery would be banned in all land gained from (answer above)

Mexican Cession
Wilmot (huge debate in Congress and never passed)

65

In period 5, the US sought to trade with other areas including _____

Asia

66

US trading with other nations led to an influx of "Old Immigrants" (pre-Civil War)
This led to:

Nativist movement (ant Catholic/Irish)
Hoped to limit power of immigrants
Know-Nothing Party

67

What were some acts the promoted national development

Homestead Act
160 acres of land, encouraged western settlement
Morill Land Grant
Sold land and provided money for colleges

68

Abolitionists used many methods against slavery, including:

Fierce arguments- William Lloyd Garrison ("The Liberator")
Helping slaves run away- Underground RR
Violence- John Brown, Nat Turner's Rebellion

69

How was slavery defended in south

Positive good
Racist stereotyping- Jim Crow Minstrel Shows (Black Face)
Plessy v Ferguson

70

What was one proposal to solve the issues of slavery

Compromise of 1850 created to address land of Mexican Cession (Henry Clay's last compromise at 72)

71

What were the 5 parts of the compromise of 1850

Popular sovereignty in Mexican Cession
A new, more strict Fugitive Slave Law, Slave trade in DC was abolished, California admitted to the union as a free state (tipped balance in favor of free states), Texas paid money (10 million) to give up claims to bordering states

72

Impacts of Compromise of 1850

North detested it (abolitionist movement)
Nullified it/personal liberty laws didn't allow jails or courts to be used in capture of run away slaves

73

This act was proposed by Steven Douglas and it sought to allow for popular sovereignty in Kansas and Nebraska. Douglas wanted to built a railroad through Nebraska
Why is this important

Kansas-Nebraska Act
Overturns Missouri Compromise of 1820
Kansas should be slave Nebraska should be free

74

The Kansas Nebraska Act Suggestion results in

Bleeding Kansas- voters turn out in full force in Kansas

75

1857 Supreme Court Case that sought to settle the slavery question in territories

Dred Scott Decision

76

The Dred Scott decision said that slaves were not _______ and could not ___________________
It went further to explain...

Citizens, sue in court
MC was unconstitutional and Congress could not regulate slavery in the territories

77

The Republican Party started as a sectional party in the _________ and ________. It was made up of many former_______

North and Midwest
Whigs

78

Lincoln in 1860 ran on a free soil platform, meaning...

He was against extension of slavery

79

Impact of election of Lincoln

Southern secession, Civil war

80

The Emancipation Proclamation freed slaves in areas of _____

Rebellion

81

The __________ changed the purpose of the war, saw an increase in black soldiers in the military, and helped keep Europe from aiding the South

Emancipation proclamation

82

The Emancipation proclamation could be compared with the ____________ which talks about a new birth of freedom, or the ____ amendment

Gettysburg Address, 13th

83

Why did the North win the Civil war

Military leadership (Grant and Sherman), Effective Strategies (Anaconda Plan, March to the Sea), Key Victories (Antietam), More resources and people

84

The ___ amendment was passed in ______ and it abolished slavery

13, 1865

85

South tried to get around 13th ammendment with _______

Sharecropping

86

What is Sharecropping

Free men worked on farms in exchange for housing and land
1/2 of crops go to owner
Had to borrow money to get started (loans)
Crop Lean system
Many African Americans were and in perpetual debt

87

Sought to increase power in the south and increase rights for African Americans
Examples

Radical Republicans
Charles Sumner,Thaddeus Stevens

88

Radical Republicans weren't successful because

Reconstruction ended in the compromise of 1877
The North's waning result to assist African Americans

89

Waning means to _____

Decrease (north resolve is decreasing to assist AA)panic of 1873

90

___ amendment granted citizenship to African Americans and those born in US and provided equal protection of the laws.
It overturned the _______ decision

14th, Dred Scott

91

__ amendment provided suffrage for all adult males regardless of race or previous conditions of servitude

15

92

With the passing of the 14 and 15 amendments, what happened to women's rights groups

They were split; some favored providing suffrage for blacks before suffrage for women, others did not support it unless women were granted suffrage as well

93

Although amendments did pass granting blacks rights, these rights were stripped away sometimes by

Segregation (Plessy v Ferguson), Jim Crow Laws, (separate but equal), Violence (KKK, lynching of AA in south), local political tactics (poll taxes, literacy tests, grandfather clauses)

94

Change and continuity with slavery views

It's necessary, we know it's bad but we need it
It's necessary and is okay, we are saving their souls, giving them homes

95

The stonewall riot was at the _______________ and led by ________

Stonewall Inn, gays

96

What was the Stono Rebellion

The African Americans wanted to run away to live with Indians in Florida

97

The first big rebellion connected to the revolution
The guy could not pay his taxes and it his farm was going to get foreclosed on
He wanted to close the court down

Shay's rebellion

98

One of the arguments of slavery is that if slaves were unhappy there would be more _____________

Resistance (instead, slaves sabotaged the masters' tools more subtly)

99

The most successful Native American revolt was _________________'s war

King Phillip
Destroyed villages and killed many (third of male population)

100

The ______ _______ School is the school of art based on the Hudson River Valley in NY. They draw little people with huge mountains and trees showing how small people are in comparison to nature. They usually do Transcendentalists

Hudson River

101

The ____________ wore zoot suits and they were great dancers

Russaro's

102

Why was period 6 1865-1898

1865- end of the civil war
1898- beginning of Spanish American war (imperialism)

103

The Gilded Age was coined by ____

Mark Twain

104

What does the Gilded Age indicate
Describe political debates
Currency issue
Corporate expansion

On the surface, things were good, but many problems lied underneath
Focused on tariffs (Republicans Raise,, Democrats Down)
Republicans favored gold standard, populists want free and unlimited coinage of silver
Monopolies and trusts

105

After the Civil War, in what ways did the US gov't encourage westward expansion

Subsidies to railroads
Cheap land

106

The westward expansion after the civil war led to conflict with __________. How

Natives
Treaties were violated
Near distinction of buffalo which were important to Native life (hunters)

107

The Battle of ______ _______ in 1890 is one example of the hostile relations with Natives out west. Nearly 300 natives died most of who were women and children

Wounded Knee

108

What is one way the migrators sought to assimilate the natives out west

Dawes Act sought to end tribal identity use
Took NA land and gave it to heads of families (changed from hunting to farming)
Changed way they dressed,, children sent to boarding school

109

Businesses during the Gilded Age consolidate their power. They justified this power through ideas such as...

Social Darwinism, Gospel of Wealth (by Andrew Carnegie)

110

Conflict emerged during the Gilded Age between ________ and __________ over natural resources and the preservation of land. Luckily, __________ did an amazing job at later preserving national parks

Business, conservationists
Teddy Roosevelt

111

What were some of the labor unions that workers organized into during the Gilded Age

Knights of Labor (Terrance Powderly) (skilled and unskilled)
American Federation of Labor (Samuel Gompers)(unskilled only)

112

The federal government often sided with ___________ in labor disputes

Businesses

113

The "New South" was the idea that....

The south should industrialize after the Civil War
Instead, Sharecropping and tenant farming persisted throughout the south

114

Mechanized agriculture hurt _____________. So, they created organizations to challenge RR's and corporate control of markets. One of these organizations was the ______ ________.

Farmers
Populist Party/People's Party

115

In 1896, William Jennings Bryan ran as a part of the _______ ______ which advocated ....

Populist Party
Political reform and increased government involvement in the economy (mostly farmers)

116

What were the goals of the Populist Party

Graduated income tax, government control of railroads and telegraphs, free silver

117

Immigration during the Gilded Age brought in people from _____ and _______ and ______ Europe. This led to __________. Give an example

Asia, Southern/Eastern. Nativism
Chinese Exclusion Act

118

Immigrants sought to "_______" yet still preserve their cultural identities (autonomy)

Americanize

119

Protestant church movement that sought to end social issues in cities

Social Gospel

120

As cities became more crowded, we see the emergence of....

Political machines (Boss Tweed and Tammany Hall [political support in exchange for food, shelter, etc])(
Settlement Houses (James Addam's Hull House)

121

What are some examples of discrimination, violence, and segregation that were still present within the country even after the Civil War

APA (sought to keep Catholics out of office)
Plessy v Ferguson (Jim Crow Laws)
Activists that challenged their place (Booker T Washington advocated vocational training for AA's and Ida B Wells was an outspoken critic of lynching)

122

Period 7 was 1890-1945. Why

1890- Closing of frontier (overseas expansion)
1945- End of WWII, shift in US foreign policy

123

What were some reasons for oversea expansion closed

Frontier was closed/used up (Frederick Jackson Turner)
Economic motives (money for business and desire for trade)
Competition with European imperialists (China-spheres of influence)
Racial theories (White Man's Burden) they need to spread ideas

124

What was the outcome of the Spanish American war and what kind of stances were taken on the annexation of the lands won

US defeated Spain in 4 months
Gained Guam, Puerto Rico, Philippines
Debates between imperialists (TR, McKinley) and anti-imperialists (William Jennings Bryan, Anti-Imperialist League)
Long insurrection in the Philippines

125

The progressive era was from ______-_____
And can be best characterized as

1890,1920
Advance government intervention in the economy (Meat Inspection Act, Hepburn Act (railroads))
Sought to expand democracy

126

Characteristics of the average progressive

Women, middle class, cities

127

WWI was from _____ to _____
The US joined in _______ although they were initially _____

1914,1918,1917,neutral

128

Why did the US join WWI

Wilson wanted to make the world safe for democracy

129

What were some of the post-war details involved with WWI

Treaty of Versailles, League of Nations, Wilson's 14 points

130

What is the US's attitude of the Treaty of Versailles and the League of Nations

Doesn't like it, doesn't join

131

The Great Migration was a mass movement of African Americans from the South to the North during WWI for ________ _________

Economic opportunities

132

1918-1920 was the ____ _____ and it was caused by the Russian Revolution. It was a fear of _____ and labor unrest

Red Scare
Communism

133

The Red Scare had people hesitant of ________ and __________

Radicals, immigrants

134

Quota Acts of 1920s were highly restrictive and aimed at _____

Immigrants

135

What were some technological advancements in the early 1920s

Refrigerator, car, radio

136

Many conflicts arose in the 1920s, give some examples

Tradition vs innovation
Fundamentalist Christianity vs scientific modernism (Scopes Trial)
Native Born vs New Immigrants (quota act)
White vs Black (Red Summer)
Idealism vs Disillusionment (Lost Generation)

137

A celebration of African American culture through writings, music, etc. (Langston Hughes, Zora Neal Hurston)

Harlem Renaissance

138

What was the new deal
Describe people for and against it

Created as response to GD
FDR
Influenced by progressive ideas
Relief, Recovery, Reform
Government takes active approach in economy
Some sought to limit it (Conservatives, Supreme Court)
Other called for more reforms (Huey Long, father Charles Townshed)

139

What were some impacts of the New Deal

Many agencies are still around (FDIC, Social Security
Did not completely overcome GD
Shift in voting- AA and unions began to support the Democratic Party

140

The US was neutral in WWII until _________________ happened

Pearl Harbor
Although they claimed to be neutral, they traded heavily with Britain and the allies

141

Mass mobilization of WWII ended the GD
Why

Economic opportunities for women and blacks
(Factory jobs)
Govt encouraged migration from Mexico (Bracero Program)

142

_______ _______ camps during WWII were an executive order upheld by Supreme Court. Japanese had to leave their homes

Japanese Internment

143

How did the US and the Allies win WWII

Political and military cooperation (Atlantic Charter)
Industrial production
Advancements in Technology and Science (Manhattan Project--Nuclear Weapons)

144

Why was period 8 1945-1980

1945- end of WWII, shift in US foreign policy
1980- Ronald Reagan elected emergence of conservative movement

145

The US foreign policy post WWII can be defined by one word:__________
This was coined by whom?

Containment (US sought to contain spread of communism)
George Kennan

146

The US containing the spread of communism after WWII is similar to..

The free soiler's containing the spread of slavery before the Civil War, but not trying to end it totally

147

The US focused on helping non-communist countries resist communism. How?

NATO- alliance between US and European countries (1st peace-time alliance)
Marshall Plan and Truman Doctrine provided money to countries in Europe to resist communism

148

During the Cold War, the US sought to support non-communist governments even if they weren't the most democratic, provide examples

Iran, Batista in Cuba, Vietnam

149

Detente means...
Where do we see this

Easing of tensions (SALT treaties)

150

Tensions between US and USSR fluctuated between ________ and _______

Confrontation (Cuban Missile Crisis), detente

151

The Cold War sparked debates on topics like

Iiberty vs order

152

The Cold War caused the __________ and was designed to root out ______

2nd Red Scare, communism (Joseph McCarthy, HUAC, Truman's military oath))

153

Eisenhower's farewell address warned of having a large military in peactime. This was the idea of

Military Industrial Complex

154

The ______ is the southern part of the US that saw an emergence of new industries during the Vietnam War

Sun belt

155

_______ were common during the Vietnam war
Examples?

Protests
Post 1968- TET Offensive (couldn't win)
Kent State Massacre (college students killed by national guard during protest)

156

Describe the roles of each branch of government in period 8 over civil rights

Executive: desegregation of military (Truman)
Judicial: Brown vs Board of Education (overturned Plessy v Ferguson)
Legislative- Civil Rights Act of 1964-ended segregation

157

Was there white resistance to desegregation? Explain

Yes- Southern Manifesto, Massive Resistance (schools would rather shut down) (Little Rock High School [9 black students escorted in])

158

Activists used many methods to fight segregation, including

Legal challenges, direct action(Freedom Riders), nonviolent protests (MLK)

159

After the assassination of Malcolm X in 1965,, tensions over philosophies increased. Many people called for more ____ power

Black

160

Continuation of new deal programs and the implementation of new government programs (Medicare, Medicaid) and promotion of Civil Rights (Civil Rights Act of 1964) (Voting Rights Act of 1965)
This took place during _____'s presidency

Great Society, LBJ

161

Increasing the involvement and power of gov't to fix societal problems

Height (Zenith) of liberalism

162

Ended the discriminatory quota system from the 1920s; encouraged immigration from Asia and Latin America

Immigration Act of 1965

163

Rights for women also increased in period 8 with...
For Homosexuals...
For Latinos...

Betty Friedan and NOW (National Organization of Women)
Stonewall Riots in NYC-promoted Gay Rights Mocement
Latinos- Cesar Chavez

164

Give some Supreme Court cases that expanded democracy and individual freedoms

Griswold vs Connecticut- SC struck down laws prohibiting birth control, establish "Right to Privacy"
Miranda vs Arizona: increased rights to accused (Miranda Rights)

165

What is the impact of the Great Society and Supreme Court decisions?

Helped motivate the conservative movement

166

Environmental movement really began (in period 8) with Rachel Carson's _________ _________
What did it do
How did the gov't respond

Silent Spring
Brought awareness to danger of pesticides on the Environment
Environmental Protection Agency, Clean Air Act

167

The counterculture (_________) of the 1960s challenged many ideas of their parents' generation (economic, social, political)
They embraced marijuana and helped initiate a _____ Revolution

Hippies
Sexual

168

Period 9 is 1980-present
Why

1980- election of Ronald Reagan and emergence of conservative movement
Present- today

169

What invigorated conservatism in the 1980s

Economic problems from 1970s (inflation) (people don't want gov't spending money)
Growth of religious fundamentalism
Public's loss of faith in government's ability to solve problems

170

What was one foreign policy failure in period 9

Iran Hostage Crisis (1979-Jan 1981)
Reaction to US assistance to deposed Sha of Iran

171

What were conservative victories in period 9
Non-victories

Taxation (reduction in taxes) "Reaganomics" "Trickle Down Economics"
Deregulation of many industries (less involvement of government in industries)
Abortion remained legal

172

Reagan and many conservatives denounced ______ Government

Big (conservatives favored smaller gov't but it grew after 1980)

173

Why did the size of the gov't grow after 1980

Hard to eliminate popular programs- Medicare, Social Security, etc.

174

Describe foreign policy under Reagan

Early in his administration, he rejected detente
Employed "bellicose rhetoric" (harsh terms ex) "Evil Empire")
He later developed positive relationship with Gorbachev (they achieved arms reductions)

175

Describe economy post 1980

US saw a decrease in manufacturing and union job (outsourced to other countries)
Debates over free trade agreement (NAFTA)
Size of safety nets (social security and reforming it)

176

In period 9, population shifts led to the _____ and the ____ gaining population ("Sun Belt")
We had immigrants from Latin America and Asia especially because of the ...
This led to policy debates

South, West
1965 Immigration Act

177

Changes for homosexuals in period 9 included Don't Ask Don't Tell in 1994. What did this do and when was it overturned

Banned openly gay individuals from serving in the military
2011

178

The War on Terrorism was a response to what major event
What did this lead to

9/11
War in Afghanistan
War in Iraq (US believed Iraq had Weapons of Mass Destruction and connections to terrorism)

179

What was the impact of the war on terrorism

Debates over civil liberties vs government power (continuity throughout history)
PATRIOT ACT (similar to sedition acts, when there is a warm civil liberties go down)

180

Who is the Teflan President

Reagan (nothing sticks to him) (Iron Contra Affair)

181

Betty Friedan

Founder of modern women's movement (not so much suffrage)
Wrote Feminist Mystique

182

What are the 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 amendment

Abolish slavery
Free citizenship to AA's
Voting for all males
Graduated income tax
Direct election of senators
Prohibition of alcohol
Women suffrage

183

Cult of domesticity

Mothers should raise/educate their children and make sure the home is okay and running smoothly

184

Give reasons for the second great migration
First great migration

Inheritance tax, Weather, Sun belt, Allergy issues
-AA from South to North looking fore more city-like jobs and less agricultural

185

What is the Iran Hostage Crisis

The Iran hostage crisis was a diplomatic crisis between Iran and the United States. 52 American diplomats and citizens were held hostage for 444 days (November 4, 1979, to January 20, 1981) after a group of Iranian students belonging to the Muslim Student Followers of the Imam's Line, who supported the Iranian Revolution, took over the U.S. Embassy in Tehran.[1]

186

Identify some examples of literature and how they influenced their respective time periods

Great Awakening- Johnathon Edwards- sinners in the hands of an angry God (many Puritan sermons)
Thomas Paine's Common Sense
Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau's Transcendentalism influenced views of nature (romanticism)
"How the Other Half Lives"- gilded age
"Uncle Tom's Cabin"- Harriet Beecher Stowe -slavery
"Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin" -historical accounts
"The Gettysburg Address"
Most works helped bring about something; war, victory, end of slavery, or encouraged certain behavior; Transcendentalism, religious revival (think of things that change [or seek to change] society in some way)

187

How did art change over the years

Cave drawings--unprofessional work-- John Smibert 1st chronicled artist in America--paintings reflected historical times "The Declaration of Independence" and natural things "The Frontier"
John Singleton Copley even painted portraits of people (Sam Adams, Paul Revere, Judith Sargent Murray)

188

What were the conditions of the Dawes Act of 1887

Gave each tribe 160 acres in attempt to Americanize them. After 25 years this property would become theirs if they followed rules and they would become a citizen

189

What was the Homestead Act of 1862

Allowed settlers to acquire 160 acres of land by living on/improving land for 5 years for a fee of $30
Land was usually terrible and infertile

190

When was the Great Awakening
Why did it occur

1730s and 1740s
Put a greater importance on the individual and their spiritual experience
People questioned the role of the individual in religion and society

191

The second great awakening was in the ______ century in the US and changed the common religion from ... to ...
This religious revival is best known for its _____ ______

19th
Congregationalists, Anglicans, Quakers
Evangelical Methodists, baptists
Camp meetings

192

The enlightenment was in the ____ century and was basically...
What did it inspire

18th, the idea that humanity could be improved through rational change. It questioned traditional authority and is often called the Age of Reason
(American and French Revolutions)

193

Revolutionary war was from _____-_____

1775,1783