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Flashcards in APUSH Final Exam Review Deck (193)
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1
Q

Why was period 1 1491-1607

A

1491- 1 year prior to European contact

1607- first permanent English settlement (Jamestown)

2
Q

Exchange of goods, ideas, diseases, and people between Europe, Africa, and the Americas

A

Colombian Exchange

3
Q

Where was maize grown

A

Southwest US and Mexico

4
Q

The Great Plains and Great Basin were located in _______ modern day US and they led a ________ lifestyle largely because …

A

Central

Nomadic (hunters), they lacked resources

5
Q

What was the impact of the Columbian Exchange on America?
Europe?
Africa?

A

Disease impacted natives, guns and horses impact native life, radically mixed population (mestizo [NA and European])
Potatoes and maize lead to population growth and more capitalistic ideas
Slave trade (middle passage) (Spanish and Portuguese first countries to begin trade in West Africa)

6
Q

Royal grant of land by the Spanish crown to settlers who promised to Christianize natives
Replaced by African slave labor

A

Encomienda system

7
Q

Independence, self-rule

A

Autonomy (Africans and Natives seek to preserve their autonomy)

8
Q

Period 2 spans from 1607-1754

Why?

A

Jamestown- beginning of the 7 years war

9
Q

Who established NE colonies

Describe them briefly

A

Puritans
Like-minded community
Mix of agriculture and commerce

10
Q

What two people were banished form NE colonies

A

Roger Williams, Anne Hutchison

11
Q

Describe Middle colonies

A

Cereal crops- religious, ethnically, demographically diverse

Most diverse/accepting

12
Q

What were the Chespeake colonies and what were they most known for

A

Maryland and Virginia
TOBACCO
Relied on indentured servants until 1676 (Bacon’s Rebellion) then moved to African slaves

13
Q

Southern colonies/West Indies characteristics

A
Staple crops (sugar) heavy use of slave labor
Africans made up majority of population
14
Q

Native American rebellion in SW US
Spanish sought to end native practices inconsistent with Christianity
Spanish kicked out for 10 years and when they came back they advocated religious assimilation

A

Pueblo Revolt

15
Q

Process of colonies taking on British characteristics

Seen through trans-Atlantic print culture, commercial ties, etc

A

Anglicization

16
Q

Focus on reason and intelligence

Individuals begin to question government (monarchies)

A

Enlightenment

17
Q

Montesquieu advocated for _______ branches of gov’t during the enlightenment and ________ called for consent of the government

A

Three, Locke

18
Q

What is mercantilism

A

Economic theory-goal to make money for mother country

Positive balance of trade that favors mother country

19
Q

Period three is 1754-1800. Why?

A

1754- beginning of 7 years war in 1756

1800- Jefferson’s election

20
Q

The 7 years’ war was the ______ and the ______ vs the _______ and the ________

A

British/colonists

French/natives

21
Q

Who started the 7 years war? Where?

Who won?

A

George Washington, Ohio Valley (Pitt)

Britain won and France is removed from North America

22
Q

France leaving North America and Britain taking their land is a _________ event
Why

A

Watershed

Britain ends salutary neglect and they begin to tax colonies with leads to colonial resistance

23
Q

The 7 years’ war end in ______

A

1763

24
Q

Explain two new taxes and the colonists’ response

A

Stamp act- stamp act congress, repeal of stamp act, Declaratory act (they could pass whatever acts they wanted in the future)

25
Q

Who wrote Common Sense and what was the main purpose of the writing

A
Thomas Paine (enlightenment thinker)
Urged the colonists to break away from Great Britain
26
Q

Who wrote Declaration of Independence
Whom was it inspired by
What was it

A

Jefferson, Adams, Franklin
Common sense (Paine) and enlightenment thinkers (Locke)
List of grievances against King George III

27
Q

When was the American Revolution
The US won in spite of…..
Because of…

A

1775-1783

Loyalist opposition, military and financial advantages by GB support from France/Europe, ideological commitment

28
Q

Briefly describe the characteristics of the Articles of Confederation

A

Weak central government, could not tax, no national military, 9 out of 13 states need to agree to pass law, 13 required to amend articles

29
Q

One of the successes of the articles of confederation was the ____________________ that admitted states into the union with 60,000 inhabitants. It outlawed slavery in NW territory and established public education

A

NW Land Ordinance

30
Q

Too many problems with the articles of confederation resulted in the creation of the __________________
Describe it

A

Constitution
A lot of credit goes to James Madison, Based on federalism and separation of powers, series of compromises with limits on national powers
Written in 1787

31
Q

Describe the compromises present in the constitution

A

Great Compromise- House (based on population), Senate had equal representation for each state
This combined NJ and Virginia plans
3/5 compromise- 60% of slavery would count as population towards state
Slave trade compromise outlawed international slave trade after 1808

32
Q

Did the constitution deal with slavery?

A

No-postponed a solution to the problems of slavery

33
Q

A list of rights guaranteed to individuals added after the constitutional convention
Why?

A

Bill of Rights

Satisfy the anti-federalist so they would ratify the constitution

34
Q

What are some of the impacts of the ideals of the Declaration of Independence and the American Revolution

A

French Revolution (inspired by enlightenment ideas)
Divisions between Jefferson and Hamilton
Haiti and Latin America experience rebellions as well

35
Q

GW Farewell address warned against what

A

Foreign alliances, political parties (tensions between Britain and France helped lead to political parties)

36
Q

Tensions with Britain and France cause political parties

How

A

Hamilton thought they should stay out of it but Jefferson thought they should help France (they helped us in REV War)

37
Q

What was republican motherhood (effects)

A

Encouraged women to raise children and instill republican values in their families
Women gained more access to education

38
Q

Period 4 is from 1800-1848

Why

A

1800- Jefferson elected

1848- Seneca Falls Convention

39
Q

First political parties formed in response to Hamiton’s financial Plan and the French Revolution

A

Democratic-republican, federalist

40
Q

Federalist characteristics

A

Upper-class, loose interpretation of constitution, pro British (trade), favored merchants, liked BUS (Hamiltonians)

41
Q

Characteristics of Democratic-Republicans

A

(Jeffersonians), commoners, strict interpretation, pro-French, favored farmers, disliked BUS

42
Q

When were democrats formed?
Characteristics?
Whigs?

A

In response to “King Andrew I”
Party of common man, white male suffrage, spoils system, low tariffs (democrats down)
Whigs: favor tariffs,, strong Congress, internal improvements, favored BUS

43
Q

The Louisiana Purchase was in ______ and it marked the beginning of _______________
The US _______ in size. How did it change Jefferson

A

1803, manifest destiny, doubled

He went from strict to loose interpretation to justify buying land

44
Q

The Supreme Court helped assert _______ power over state laws and determined the meaning of the _________

A

Federal, Constitution

45
Q

In 1803 Marbury vs Madison, the Supreme Court established the policy of _________________ (federal power over state laws)
What court case shows this

A

Judicial review
Gibbons vs. Ogden- Supreme Court ruled that federal government and not states ruled interstate trade (trade on River between NY and NJ)

46
Q

Slavery was defended by people such as __________ as a _________
Give some reasons for slavery

A
John C Calhoun
Positive good
Saving their souls
Cradling the graves (Medicare and homes)
Cotton gin
Economy needs slavery
47
Q

Focused on secular reform, especially abolitionism, and women’s rights (Seneca Falls)

Inspired people to achieve perfection

A

Second Great Awakening

48
Q

____________ is the fear of foreigners which is similar to _____

A

Xenophobia, nativism

49
Q
Describe and/or identify one example
Textile machinery
Interchangeable parts 
Canal
Railroad?
Telegraph?
Agricultural inventions?
A

Textile machinery
Allowed boats against current
Eli Whitney
Erie Canal connect NYC and Chicago (shipping)
The 1840s, faster shipment of goods and people
Spread info more quickly
Steel plow, McCormick reaper

50
Q

The __________ system was Henry Clay’s system that sought to unify the national economy
The three parts were

A

American

BUS, tariff to fund internal improvements and protect American businesses

51
Q

American system did not benefit ________

A

South (would not industrialize)

52
Q

Migrants from Europe during Period 4 include _______ in cities and ___________ on the frontier as Farmers. Both groups mostly settled in the ____ and ____

A

Irish, Germans

East, Midwest

53
Q

Migrants from Europe in Period 4 led to ….

A

Interdependence between Northeast and old Northwest (so many people going there)

54
Q

Transformation in how goods were produced- more outside the home; an increase in technology and transportation as well

A

Market Revolution

55
Q

The American system called for national bank, tariffs, and internal improvements. These became the major political issues of the time as ________________trumped national concerns

A

Regional issues

56
Q

When the federal government attempted to assert authorities over states, how did states resist

A

Hartford Convention, Nullification Crisis

57
Q

The ___________________ was a anti-slave compromise passed in 1820

A

Missouri Compromise

58
Q

_________________: proposed the gradual emancipation of slaves in MO; never passed

A

Tallmadge Amendment

59
Q

What were the three parts of the Missouri Compromise

What does it apply to

A

MO added as a slave state, ME added as a free state, 36’‘30’ above free below slave
Only applies to Louisiana purchase

60
Q

The Missouri Compromise is eventually repealed by the _______________ and Dred Scott Decision

A

Kansas-Nebraska Act

61
Q

Period 5 spans from 1844-1877

Why

A

1844- election of James K Polk (height of manifest destiny)

1877- End of Reconstruction

62
Q

The belief that it was the US’s God-given right to expand

It was based on a belief of..

A

Manifest destiny

White racial superiority and American culture superiority

63
Q

The election of 1844 Clay vs Polk focused heavily on

A

Manifest destiny (Polk was for it, Clay was not)

64
Q

The Mexican-American war could be seen as an example of manifest destiny
The US won and gained the ____________
The ______________ Proviso proposed that slavery would be banned in all land gained from (answer above)

A

Mexican Cession

Wilmot (huge debate in Congress and never passed)

65
Q

In period 5, the US sought to trade with other areas including _____

A

Asia

66
Q

US trading with other nations led to an influx of “Old Immigrants” (pre-Civil War)
This led to:

A

Nativist movement (ant Catholic/Irish)
Hoped to limit power of immigrants
Know-Nothing Party

67
Q

What were some acts the promoted national development

A

Homestead Act
160 acres of land, encouraged western settlement
Morill Land Grant
Sold land and provided money for colleges

68
Q

Abolitionists used many methods against slavery, including:

A

Fierce arguments- William Lloyd Garrison (“The Liberator”)
Helping slaves run away- Underground RR
Violence- John Brown, Nat Turner’s Rebellion

69
Q

How was slavery defended in south

A

Positive good
Racist stereotyping- Jim Crow Minstrel Shows (Black Face)
Plessy v Ferguson

70
Q

What was one proposal to solve the issues of slavery

A

Compromise of 1850 created to address land of Mexican Cession (Henry Clay’s last compromise at 72)

71
Q

What were the 5 parts of the compromise of 1850

A

Popular sovereignty in Mexican Cession
A new, more strict Fugitive Slave Law, Slave trade in DC was abolished, California admitted to the union as a free state (tipped balance in favor of free states), Texas paid money (10 million) to give up claims to bordering states

72
Q

Impacts of Compromise of 1850

A

North detested it (abolitionist movement)

Nullified it/personal liberty laws didn’t allow jails or courts to be used in capture of run away slaves

73
Q

This act was proposed by Steven Douglas and it sought to allow for popular sovereignty in Kansas and Nebraska. Douglas wanted to built a railroad through Nebraska
Why is this important

A

Kansas-Nebraska Act
Overturns Missouri Compromise of 1820
Kansas should be slave Nebraska should be free

74
Q

The Kansas Nebraska Act Suggestion results in

A

Bleeding Kansas- voters turn out in full force in Kansas

75
Q

1857 Supreme Court Case that sought to settle the slavery question in territories

A

Dred Scott Decision

76
Q

The Dred Scott decision said that slaves were not _______ and could not ___________________
It went further to explain…

A

Citizens, sue in court

MC was unconstitutional and Congress could not regulate slavery in the territories

77
Q

The Republican Party started as a sectional party in the _________ and ________. It was made up of many former_______

A

North and Midwest

Whigs

78
Q

Lincoln in 1860 ran on a free soil platform, meaning…

A

He was against extension of slavery

79
Q

Impact of election of Lincoln

A

Southern secession, Civil war

80
Q

The Emancipation Proclamation freed slaves in areas of _____

A

Rebellion

81
Q

The __________ changed the purpose of the war, saw an increase in black soldiers in the military, and helped keep Europe from aiding the South

A

Emancipation proclamation

82
Q

The Emancipation proclamation could be compared with the ____________ which talks about a new birth of freedom, or the ____ amendment

A

Gettysburg Address, 13th

83
Q

Why did the North win the Civil war

A

Military leadership (Grant and Sherman), Effective Strategies (Anaconda Plan, March to the Sea), Key Victories (Antietam), More resources and people

84
Q

The ___ amendment was passed in ______ and it abolished slavery

A

13, 1865

85
Q

South tried to get around 13th ammendment with _______

A

Sharecropping

86
Q

What is Sharecropping

A

Free men worked on farms in exchange for housing and land
1/2 of crops go to owner
Had to borrow money to get started (loans)
Crop Lean system
Many African Americans were and in perpetual debt

87
Q

Sought to increase power in the south and increase rights for African Americans
Examples

A

Radical Republicans

Charles Sumner,Thaddeus Stevens

88
Q

Radical Republicans weren’t successful because

A

Reconstruction ended in the compromise of 1877

The North’s waning result to assist African Americans

89
Q

Waning means to _____

A

Decrease (north resolve is decreasing to assist AA)panic of 1873

90
Q

___ amendment granted citizenship to African Americans and those born in US and provided equal protection of the laws.
It overturned the _______ decision

A

14th, Dred Scott

91
Q

__ amendment provided suffrage for all adult males regardless of race or previous conditions of servitude

A

15

92
Q

With the passing of the 14 and 15 amendments, what happened to women’s rights groups

A

They were split; some favored providing suffrage for blacks before suffrage for women, others did not support it unless women were granted suffrage as well

93
Q

Although amendments did pass granting blacks rights, these rights were stripped away sometimes by

A

Segregation (Plessy v Ferguson), Jim Crow Laws, (separate but equal), Violence (KKK, lynching of AA in south), local political tactics (poll taxes, literacy tests, grandfather clauses)

94
Q

Change and continuity with slavery views

A

It’s necessary, we know it’s bad but we need it

It’s necessary and is okay, we are saving their souls, giving them homes

95
Q

The stonewall riot was at the _______________ and led by ________

A

Stonewall Inn, gays

96
Q

What was the Stono Rebellion

A

The African Americans wanted to run away to live with Indians in Florida

97
Q

The first big rebellion connected to the revolution
The guy could not pay his taxes and it his farm was going to get foreclosed on
He wanted to close the court down

A

Shay’s rebellion

98
Q

One of the arguments of slavery is that if slaves were unhappy there would be more _____________

A

Resistance (instead, slaves sabotaged the masters’ tools more subtly)

99
Q

The most successful Native American revolt was _________________’s war

A

King Phillip

Destroyed villages and killed many (third of male population)

100
Q

The ______ _______ School is the school of art based on the Hudson River Valley in NY. They draw little people with huge mountains and trees showing how small people are in comparison to nature. They usually do Transcendentalists

A

Hudson River

101
Q

The ____________ wore zoot suits and they were great dancers

A

Russaro’s

102
Q

Why was period 6 1865-1898

A

1865- end of the civil war

1898- beginning of Spanish American war (imperialism)

103
Q

The Gilded Age was coined by ____

A

Mark Twain

104
Q

What does the Gilded Age indicate
Describe political debates
Currency issue
Corporate expansion

A

On the surface, things were good, but many problems lied underneath
Focused on tariffs (Republicans Raise,, Democrats Down)
Republicans favored gold standard, populists want free and unlimited coinage of silver
Monopolies and trusts

105
Q

After the Civil War, in what ways did the US gov’t encourage westward expansion

A

Subsidies to railroads

Cheap land

106
Q

The westward expansion after the civil war led to conflict with __________. How

A

Natives
Treaties were violated
Near distinction of buffalo which were important to Native life (hunters)

107
Q

The Battle of ______ _______ in 1890 is one example of the hostile relations with Natives out west. Nearly 300 natives died most of who were women and children

A

Wounded Knee

108
Q

What is one way the migrators sought to assimilate the natives out west

A

Dawes Act sought to end tribal identity use
Took NA land and gave it to heads of families (changed from hunting to farming)
Changed way they dressed,, children sent to boarding school

109
Q

Businesses during the Gilded Age consolidate their power. They justified this power through ideas such as…

A

Social Darwinism, Gospel of Wealth (by Andrew Carnegie)

110
Q

Conflict emerged during the Gilded Age between ________ and __________ over natural resources and the preservation of land. Luckily, __________ did an amazing job at later preserving national parks

A

Business, conservationists

Teddy Roosevelt

111
Q

What were some of the labor unions that workers organized into during the Gilded Age

A

Knights of Labor (Terrance Powderly) (skilled and unskilled)

American Federation of Labor (Samuel Gompers)(unskilled only)

112
Q

The federal government often sided with ___________ in labor disputes

A

Businesses

113
Q

The “New South” was the idea that….

A

The south should industrialize after the Civil War

Instead, Sharecropping and tenant farming persisted throughout the south

114
Q

Mechanized agriculture hurt _____________. So, they created organizations to challenge RR’s and corporate control of markets. One of these organizations was the ______ ________.

A

Farmers

Populist Party/People’s Party

115
Q

In 1896, William Jennings Bryan ran as a part of the _______ ______ which advocated ….

A

Populist Party

Political reform and increased government involvement in the economy (mostly farmers)

116
Q

What were the goals of the Populist Party

A

Graduated income tax, government control of railroads and telegraphs, free silver

117
Q

Immigration during the Gilded Age brought in people from _____ and _______ and ______ Europe. This led to __________. Give an example

A

Asia, Southern/Eastern. Nativism

Chinese Exclusion Act

118
Q

Immigrants sought to “_______” yet still preserve their cultural identities (autonomy)

A

Americanize

119
Q

Protestant church movement that sought to end social issues in cities

A

Social Gospel

120
Q

As cities became more crowded, we see the emergence of….

A
Political machines (Boss Tweed and Tammany Hall [political support in exchange for food, shelter, etc])(
Settlement Houses (James Addam's Hull House)
121
Q

What are some examples of discrimination, violence, and segregation that were still present within the country even after the Civil War

A

APA (sought to keep Catholics out of office)
Plessy v Ferguson (Jim Crow Laws)
Activists that challenged their place (Booker T Washington advocated vocational training for AA’s and Ida B Wells was an outspoken critic of lynching)

122
Q

Period 7 was 1890-1945. Why

A

1890- Closing of frontier (overseas expansion)

1945- End of WWII, shift in US foreign policy

123
Q

What were some reasons for oversea expansion closed

A

Frontier was closed/used up (Frederick Jackson Turner)
Economic motives (money for business and desire for trade)
Competition with European imperialists (China-spheres of influence)
Racial theories (White Man’s Burden) they need to spread ideas

124
Q

What was the outcome of the Spanish American war and what kind of stances were taken on the annexation of the lands won

A

US defeated Spain in 4 months
Gained Guam, Puerto Rico, Philippines
Debates between imperialists (TR, McKinley) and anti-imperialists (William Jennings Bryan, Anti-Imperialist League)
Long insurrection in the Philippines

125
Q

The progressive era was from ______-_____

And can be best characterized as

A

1890,1920
Advance government intervention in the economy (Meat Inspection Act, Hepburn Act (railroads))
Sought to expand democracy

126
Q

Characteristics of the average progressive

A

Women, middle class, cities

127
Q

WWI was from _____ to _____

The US joined in _______ although they were initially _____

A

1914,1918,1917,neutral

128
Q

Why did the US join WWI

A

Wilson wanted to make the world safe for democracy

129
Q

What were some of the post-war details involved with WWI

A

Treaty of Versailles, League of Nations, Wilson’s 14 points

130
Q

What is the US’s attitude of the Treaty of Versailles and the League of Nations

A

Doesn’t like it, doesn’t join

131
Q

The Great Migration was a mass movement of African Americans from the South to the North during WWI for ________ _________

A

Economic opportunities

132
Q

1918-1920 was the ____ _____ and it was caused by the Russian Revolution. It was a fear of _____ and labor unrest

A

Red Scare

Communism

133
Q

The Red Scare had people hesitant of ________ and __________

A

Radicals, immigrants

134
Q

Quota Acts of 1920s were highly restrictive and aimed at _____

A

Immigrants

135
Q

What were some technological advancements in the early 1920s

A

Refrigerator, car, radio

136
Q

Many conflicts arose in the 1920s, give some examples

A

Tradition vs innovation
Fundamentalist Christianity vs scientific modernism (Scopes Trial)
Native Born vs New Immigrants (quota act)
White vs Black (Red Summer)
Idealism vs Disillusionment (Lost Generation)

137
Q

A celebration of African American culture through writings, music, etc. (Langston Hughes, Zora Neal Hurston)

A

Harlem Renaissance

138
Q

What was the new deal

Describe people for and against it

A

Created as response to GD
FDR
Influenced by progressive ideas
Relief, Recovery, Reform
Government takes active approach in economy
Some sought to limit it (Conservatives, Supreme Court)
Other called for more reforms (Huey Long, father Charles Townshed)

139
Q

What were some impacts of the New Deal

A

Many agencies are still around (FDIC, Social Security
Did not completely overcome GD
Shift in voting- AA and unions began to support the Democratic Party

140
Q

The US was neutral in WWII until _________________ happened

A

Pearl Harbor

Although they claimed to be neutral, they traded heavily with Britain and the allies

141
Q

Mass mobilization of WWII ended the GD

Why

A

Economic opportunities for women and blacks
(Factory jobs)
Govt encouraged migration from Mexico (Bracero Program)

142
Q

_______ _______ camps during WWII were an executive order upheld by Supreme Court. Japanese had to leave their homes

A

Japanese Internment

143
Q

How did the US and the Allies win WWII

A

Political and military cooperation (Atlantic Charter)
Industrial production
Advancements in Technology and Science (Manhattan Project–Nuclear Weapons)

144
Q

Why was period 8 1945-1980

A

1945- end of WWII, shift in US foreign policy

1980- Ronald Reagan elected emergence of conservative movement

145
Q

The US foreign policy post WWII can be defined by one word:__________
This was coined by whom?

A

Containment (US sought to contain spread of communism)

George Kennan

146
Q

The US containing the spread of communism after WWII is similar to..

A

The free soiler’s containing the spread of slavery before the Civil War, but not trying to end it totally

147
Q

The US focused on helping non-communist countries resist communism. How?

A

NATO- alliance between US and European countries (1st peace-time alliance)
Marshall Plan and Truman Doctrine provided money to countries in Europe to resist communism

148
Q

During the Cold War, the US sought to support non-communist governments even if they weren’t the most democratic, provide examples

A

Iran, Batista in Cuba, Vietnam

149
Q

Detente means…

Where do we see this

A

Easing of tensions (SALT treaties)

150
Q

Tensions between US and USSR fluctuated between ________ and _______

A

Confrontation (Cuban Missile Crisis), detente

151
Q

The Cold War sparked debates on topics like

A

Iiberty vs order

152
Q

The Cold War caused the __________ and was designed to root out ______

A

2nd Red Scare, communism (Joseph McCarthy, HUAC, Truman’s military oath))

153
Q

Eisenhower’s farewell address warned of having a large military in peactime. This was the idea of

A

Military Industrial Complex

154
Q

The ______ is the southern part of the US that saw an emergence of new industries during the Vietnam War

A

Sun belt

155
Q

_______ were common during the Vietnam war

Examples?

A

Protests
Post 1968- TET Offensive (couldn’t win)
Kent State Massacre (college students killed by national guard during protest)

156
Q

Describe the roles of each branch of government in period 8 over civil rights

A

Executive: desegregation of military (Truman)
Judicial: Brown vs Board of Education (overturned Plessy v Ferguson)
Legislative- Civil Rights Act of 1964-ended segregation

157
Q

Was there white resistance to desegregation? Explain

A

Yes- Southern Manifesto, Massive Resistance (schools would rather shut down) (Little Rock High School [9 black students escorted in])

158
Q

Activists used many methods to fight segregation, including

A

Legal challenges, direct action(Freedom Riders), nonviolent protests (MLK)

159
Q

After the assassination of Malcolm X in 1965,, tensions over philosophies increased. Many people called for more ____ power

A

Black

160
Q

Continuation of new deal programs and the implementation of new government programs (Medicare, Medicaid) and promotion of Civil Rights (Civil Rights Act of 1964) (Voting Rights Act of 1965)
This took place during _____’s presidency

A

Great Society, LBJ

161
Q

Increasing the involvement and power of gov’t to fix societal problems

A

Height (Zenith) of liberalism

162
Q

Ended the discriminatory quota system from the 1920s; encouraged immigration from Asia and Latin America

A

Immigration Act of 1965

163
Q

Rights for women also increased in period 8 with…
For Homosexuals…
For Latinos…

A

Betty Friedan and NOW (National Organization of Women)
Stonewall Riots in NYC-promoted Gay Rights Mocement
Latinos- Cesar Chavez

164
Q

Give some Supreme Court cases that expanded democracy and individual freedoms

A

Griswold vs Connecticut- SC struck down laws prohibiting birth control, establish “Right to Privacy”
Miranda vs Arizona: increased rights to accused (Miranda Rights)

165
Q

What is the impact of the Great Society and Supreme Court decisions?

A

Helped motivate the conservative movement

166
Q

Environmental movement really began (in period 8) with Rachel Carson’s _________ _________
What did it do
How did the gov’t respond

A

Silent Spring
Brought awareness to danger of pesticides on the Environment
Environmental Protection Agency, Clean Air Act

167
Q
The counterculture (\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_) of the 1960s challenged many ideas of their parents' generation (economic, social, political)
They embraced marijuana and helped initiate a \_\_\_\_\_ Revolution
A

Hippies

Sexual

168
Q

Period 9 is 1980-present

Why

A

1980- election of Ronald Reagan and emergence of conservative movement
Present- today

169
Q

What invigorated conservatism in the 1980s

A

Economic problems from 1970s (inflation) (people don’t want gov’t spending money)
Growth of religious fundamentalism
Public’s loss of faith in government’s ability to solve problems

170
Q

What was one foreign policy failure in period 9

A

Iran Hostage Crisis (1979-Jan 1981)

Reaction to US assistance to deposed Sha of Iran

171
Q

What were conservative victories in period 9

Non-victories

A

Taxation (reduction in taxes) “Reaganomics” “Trickle Down Economics”
Deregulation of many industries (less involvement of government in industries)
Abortion remained legal

172
Q

Reagan and many conservatives denounced ______ Government

A

Big (conservatives favored smaller gov’t but it grew after 1980)

173
Q

Why did the size of the gov’t grow after 1980

A

Hard to eliminate popular programs- Medicare, Social Security, etc.

174
Q

Describe foreign policy under Reagan

A

Early in his administration, he rejected detente
Employed “bellicose rhetoric” (harsh terms ex) “Evil Empire”)
He later developed positive relationship with Gorbachev (they achieved arms reductions)

175
Q

Describe economy post 1980

A

US saw a decrease in manufacturing and union job (outsourced to other countries)
Debates over free trade agreement (NAFTA)
Size of safety nets (social security and reforming it)

176
Q

In period 9, population shifts led to the _____ and the ____ gaining population (“Sun Belt”)
We had immigrants from Latin America and Asia especially because of the …
This led to policy debates

A

South, West

1965 Immigration Act

177
Q

Changes for homosexuals in period 9 included Don’t Ask Don’t Tell in 1994. What did this do and when was it overturned

A

Banned openly gay individuals from serving in the military

2011

178
Q

The War on Terrorism was a response to what major event

What did this lead to

A

9/11
War in Afghanistan
War in Iraq (US believed Iraq had Weapons of Mass Destruction and connections to terrorism)

179
Q

What was the impact of the war on terrorism

A
Debates over civil liberties vs government power (continuity throughout history)
PATRIOT ACT (similar to sedition acts, when there is a warm civil liberties go down)
180
Q

Who is the Teflan President

A

Reagan (nothing sticks to him) (Iron Contra Affair)

181
Q

Betty Friedan

A

Founder of modern women’s movement (not so much suffrage)

Wrote Feminist Mystique

182
Q

What are the 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 amendment

A
Abolish slavery
Free citizenship to AA's
Voting for all males
Graduated income tax
Direct election of senators
Prohibition of alcohol
Women suffrage
183
Q

Cult of domesticity

A

Mothers should raise/educate their children and make sure the home is okay and running smoothly

184
Q

Give reasons for the second great migration

First great migration

A

Inheritance tax, Weather, Sun belt, Allergy issues

-AA from South to North looking fore more city-like jobs and less agricultural

185
Q

What is the Iran Hostage Crisis

A

The Iran hostage crisis was a diplomatic crisis between Iran and the United States. 52 American diplomats and citizens were held hostage for 444 days (November 4, 1979, to January 20, 1981) after a group of Iranian students belonging to the Muslim Student Followers of the Imam’s Line, who supported the Iranian Revolution, took over the U.S. Embassy in Tehran.[1]

186
Q

Identify some examples of literature and how they influenced their respective time periods

A

Great Awakening- Johnathon Edwards- sinners in the hands of an angry God (many Puritan sermons)
Thomas Paine’s Common Sense
Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau’s Transcendentalism influenced views of nature (romanticism)
“How the Other Half Lives”- gilded age
“Uncle Tom’s Cabin”- Harriet Beecher Stowe -slavery
“Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin” -historical accounts
“The Gettysburg Address”
Most works helped bring about something; war, victory, end of slavery, or encouraged certain behavior; Transcendentalism, religious revival (think of things that change [or seek to change] society in some way)

187
Q

How did art change over the years

A

Cave drawings–unprofessional work– John Smibert 1st chronicled artist in America–paintings reflected historical times “The Declaration of Independence” and natural things “The Frontier”
John Singleton Copley even painted portraits of people (Sam Adams, Paul Revere, Judith Sargent Murray)

188
Q

What were the conditions of the Dawes Act of 1887

A

Gave each tribe 160 acres in attempt to Americanize them. After 25 years this property would become theirs if they followed rules and they would become a citizen

189
Q

What was the Homestead Act of 1862

A

Allowed settlers to acquire 160 acres of land by living on/improving land for 5 years for a fee of $30
Land was usually terrible and infertile

190
Q

When was the Great Awakening

Why did it occur

A

1730s and 1740s
Put a greater importance on the individual and their spiritual experience
People questioned the role of the individual in religion and society

191
Q

The second great awakening was in the ______ century in the US and changed the common religion from … to …
This religious revival is best known for its _____ ______

A

19th
Congregationalists, Anglicans, Quakers
Evangelical Methodists, baptists
Camp meetings

192
Q

The enlightenment was in the ____ century and was basically…
What did it inspire

A

18th, the idea that humanity could be improved through rational change. It questioned traditional authority and is often called the Age of Reason
(American and French Revolutions)

193
Q

Revolutionary war was from _____-_____

A

1775,1783