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Flashcards in chem unit 4 test Deck (44)
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0
Q

how many different s configurations are there? (aka orbitals)
p?
d?
f?

A

1,3,5,7

1
Q

the energy level equals ___ and the sublevels are ____________

A

n, spdf

2
Q

______ occupy orbitals

A

electrons

3
Q

orbitals have an energy order that is

A

lowest (ground state) to highest (excited state)

4
Q

what is the ground configuration for N^-3

A

1s2, 2s2, 2p6 (add three electrons)

5
Q

what is the top of a wave?
bottom?
height?
distance from two tops?

A

crest (ridge)

trough, amplitude, wavelength

6
Q

shorter wavelength means _____ frequency and ______ energy

A

higher, higher

7
Q

what is the order on the spectrum for shorter—-longer wavelength

A

gamma-rays, x-rays, ultra-violet, visible light (VIBGYOR), Infrared, Radio-waves

8
Q

light has a ______ nature (behaves as a wave)

A

dual

9
Q

what is a photon

where do they travel

A

quanta of energy (package of energy)

transverse waves

10
Q

the wavelength is the distance between two _________ waves

A

adjacent

11
Q

what is amplitude

A

amount of energy (shape/color)

midpoint—>crest=midpoint—>trough

12
Q

the color of light is established by the ________

A

wavelength
wide length=low energy (red)
small length=high energy (violet)

13
Q

what is frequency?

A

how many waves pass a point(observer’s eye) in 1 second

=cursive v

14
Q

what are some units for frequency

A

wps, cps, hertz(hz), s^-1(per second)

15
Q

wavelength is measured in ___

A

meters

16
Q

electrons travel at _______

A

the speed of light (3.0x10^8s)

17
Q

true or false

not all forms of radiation travel at the same speed

A

false-all forms of radiation travel at the same speed

18
Q

E=photon energy

how is it found?

A

E=hc/wavelength (lamda)

E=hv

19
Q

h is called ________ and is equal to ______

A

planck’s constant, 6.626x10^-34 J*S

20
Q

where do electrons start

A

ground state (lowest possible energy)

21
Q

electrons __________ orbit, but _____ confined in 3D space

A

do not, are

22
Q

electron density regions

A

orbitals

23
Q

orbitals have a number and a name
number=
name=

A
  • energy level (n)–7 energy levels (periods 1-7)

- shape it can travel in (s)–s shape (sphere), p (peanut), d (double peanut), f (flowers)

24
Q

what is the Aufbau Principle

what is Hund’s Rule

A

when assigning orbital to electrons, always fill lowest energy first
electrons want to be unpaired until they’re forced to pair (Aufbau’s Principle)

25
Q

where is the s block, p block, d block and f block

A

groups 1-2, 13-18, 3-12, lanthanides and actinides

26
Q

every orbital can hold ___ electrons

A

2

3 configurations for p orbital–so it can hold 6

27
Q

the energy level assigned in the d-block has to be _____ while the f-block is _____

A

n-1, n-2

period 5 elements would be 4d

28
Q

in the following electron configuration, how many valence electrons does the element have?
1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p6, 4s2, 3d3

A

2

29
Q

in groups 1 and 2, valence number =________

in p-block_________

A

group number

group number-10

30
Q

in orbitals, electrons ____ each other (arrows in ____ directions)

A

repel, opposite

31
Q

quantum numbers describe the _____________

A

electron configurations

32
Q

what does the principle quantum number, n, do

A

describes the main energy levels electron occupies

n=1,2,3,4,5,6,7

33
Q

what is the subsidiary quantum number, cursive l, say

A

also called Azithmal
designates the shape of the region the electron occupies
l=0,1,2,3 (n-1)
l designates the sublevel and is given a letter notation

34
Q

what is the magnetic quantum number, m sub l, do

A

designates the spatial orientation of atomic orbital

m sub l= -l…0…l

35
Q

what is the spin quantum number m sub s

A

m sub s= -1/2 or +1/2

36
Q

no 2 electrons can have the same 4 quantum numbers, true or false

A

true

37
Q

what is electron dot notation

A

indication of the number of valence electrons around the element’s symbol
there cannot be more than 2 dots along any side of the symbol

38
Q

what are the exceptions to Aufbau’s Principle

when is stability achieved

A

1/2 filled orbitals are more stable than partially filled orbitals
orbitals are filled completely, 1/2 filled, partially filled to some degree (best to worst)

39
Q

what elements follow exceptions to Aufbau’s

A

Chromium down, Copper down

40
Q

what does frequency=
wavelength=
energy=

A

c/y
c/v
hv
hc/y

41
Q

name the three major divisions within an electron cloud with respect to the energy of an electron

A

the energy level, the orbital shape, ????????(ask)

42
Q

how can we determine the possible number of sublevels in an energy level

A

it is equal to n or the subsidiary number

43
Q

is this a possible combination of quantum numbers

n=6, l=5, m=-5, s=+1/2

A

yes-although 5 is not a known subsidiary number (block), it is 6-1