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Around AD 1000, what major agriculture begun to spread through North and Central America?

Maize agriculture


Give an example of how maize agriculture was adapted to withstand harsh environments order to be planted.

The Pueblo people of Southwestern Americas (around present day Arizona) created irrigation systems branching off the Rio Grande to water their crops in high heat


Give 3 example how maize cultivation transformation transformed ancient societies.

1. Less emphasis on hunting and gathering
2. Major increase in population (reliable food source=accommodation to more people)
3. Permanent houses were built, villages built around fields


Around 300,000 natives lived in this region prior to the arrival of the Europeans

The northwest; present day California


The people of the northwest region of the United States relied on what kind of food sources?

Mainly hunting, gathering, fishing


What wealthy society lived in the northwest region of the United States and how did they adapt to their environment?

The Chinooks; excellent warrior traditions, advanced fighting techniques in order to hold their position, lived in easy to tear down and rebuild long houses that housed up to 24 people, developed canoe


What was the Great Plains and Great Basin people's food source before the introduction of the horse?

Lack of natural resources because of the flat plains, moved with the buffalo herd but hard to catch, gathering


Name some Great Plain/Basin tribes

Cherokee, Apache, Sioux


How was life on the Great Plains/Basin altered due to the introduction of horses?

Easier to hunt/follow the buffalo, helped militarily, easier/faster to travel, larger contribution to the blood pool, tepees easily moved


Name a tribe from the Northeastern Atlantic Seaboard region and their food source.

The Iroquois (present day New York and Pennsylvania), hunting, gathering, farming (maize)


Give two examples of how the Iroquois adapted to the environment.

Burned forests to make room for crops(later led to British believing God meant the cleared land to be for them) and permanent villages built around maize farms


Give examples of how the Iroquois were a matriarchal society

Power was based on female authority, women present in council decision making, tended to crops and oversaw community affairs when men were hunting


What was the Columbian Exchange?

The exchange of plants, animals, cultures, humans, diseases, etc. between Europe, Africa, and the Americas


What are some example of things traded during the Columbian Exchange?

Americas--> Europe and Africa: potatoes, tomatoes, corn, turkey
Europe--> Americas: horses, cattle, chickens, rice, wheat


Name some impacts of the Columbian Exchange

All countries have massive population growth and overall better quality of life due to food opportunities, West Africans are sold by Spanish and Portuguese into slavery, spread of disease (SMALLPOX) mestizos or mixed blood, horses impact natives, encomienda system


What drove European exploration?

God- spread that country's religion
gold-wealth, creation of joint stock companies (Jamestown 1607 by British)
glory- build an empire with power to beat competition


How was the view of non-white people affected by the discovery of the Americas?

Natives were seen as savages due to lack of knowledge on their culture, sold into slavery, stolen land, food, families, etc.


Give an example person who advocates for slavery of natives and one who protested it.

Juan de Sepulveda-Christians had the right to enslave them
Bartolome de Las Casas- believed natives deserved equal treatment and played huge role in ending encomienda system


How did the Spanish try to convert the Natives to Christianity?

Spanish mission systems- outposts set up throughout Americas that served as military bases as well. Native practices were suppressed and Christianity forced


Give an example of how the Africans "rebelled" against the Europeans trying to dispel their culture.

Maroon communities- runaways would gather in the Caribbean islands to live in peace, some incorporated Christian elements into their customs


What was the encomienda system?

Developed in 16th century. Spain would grant royal charters to spaniards and in return they must convert any natives on the land to Catholicism, take tribute from them as well- either labor or gold


How were the natives affected by the encomienda system?

It was a form of cruel and unusual punishment: low wages, high death rate, back breaks work, ripped from families, disease spread easily, under nourished, etc.


What contributed to the downfall of the encomienda system and what was it replaced by?

Catholic's protesting harsh treatment (BDLC), mestizos were not allowed to be enslaved.
Replaced by African labor


Compare the Spanish, French/Dutch, and British motives and plans for colonization.

Spanish-want $, exploit slaves (encom. Sys.), convert them, trade with them
French/Dutch- good relationships with natives, traded furs, intermarried, lived among them, gave OPTION to convert
British- men & woman immigrants, want $, religious freedom, better living conditions, accepting of other counties immigrants. Bases on agriculture (tobacco) kept distance with natives


What was the head right system developed by the British?

Ever person someone sponsored for their journey to the Americas, they received 50 acres of land


What are the Chesapeake Bay Colonies?

Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina


Describe the Chesapeake Bay Colonies.

Based on tobacco plantations, long growing seasons, land exhausted leads to expansion. Labor mostly consisted of indentured servants then evolved to African Americans


New England Colonies

Established by Puritans (John Winthrop, wanted to purify Angican Church). Small towns with farms, schools, large families, little agriculture, fishing, forests, ports


describe the middle colonies.

Most culturally, religiously, demographically diverse. Quakers in Pennsylvania (William Penn), very tolerant, woman had equal position in church, economy based on cereal crops


Describe the southern colonies and West Indies.

South- rice, required major labor, led to increase of slave labor, slaves make up majority of population, slave codes had to be written