Flashcards in 2014 Major Nutrients - Water & Energy Deck (30):
What are the five major nutrients?
Water, energy, protein, vitamins, minerals
Name the two forms of energy provided in the cow’s diet.
Name three sources from which a cow can get water.
Drinking water, moisture in feedstuffs, chemical reactions inside cow‚Äôs body
How much more water does a cow drink, as compared to how much she eats?
Animals drink 2-3 times more than the amount of food they eat
When does water intake increase?
During periods of high heat, during periods of increasing milk yields
Most dry feedstuff is what percent water?
10 - 15%
Silage is what percent water?
45 - 75%
When 2 molecules of ammonia combine in the rumen to form urea, a single molecule of what is released?
What is the most important nutrient?
A lack of what nutrient will cause death more quickly than a lack of any other nutrient.
A cow’s body is what percent water?
56 - 81%
All reactions and processes take place in the body occur in what compound?
Name 3 roles water plays in the body.
Chemical reactions take place in water, transports nutrients, helps eliminate waste, water plays a role in chemical reactions where a water molecule is added or taken away, regulates body temperature
Name the two most effective ways for a cow to cool off.
Energy deficiency is the number one cause of a decrease in what?
Decrease in milk production
A cow uses its energy for what four processes?
Maintain their body, to grow, to keep a pregnancy, milk production
Intake energy is the amount of energy that is in what?
Amount of energy in feedstuff eaten by animal
Intake energy minus the energy lost in feces gives us what energy?
Digestible energy (IE - energy lost in feces = DE)
Digestible energy minus what energy gives us the metabolizable energy?
Energy lost as urine and gases (DE - energy lost in urine and gas = ME)
Metabolizable energy minus the energy lost in heat gives us what measure of energy?
Net energy (ME - energy lost in heat = NE)
The amount of energy contained in feedstuff is measured with what device?
Name a common measure of heat.
1000 little “c” calories is the same as what?
Calorie with capital “C”
Because many forages are less digestible than grains, this means more of what kind of energy will be lost when eating forages?
More gaseous energy is lost when eating forages than grains
Every additional unit of energy above the maintenance requirement increases the energy available for what process?
Production (in the form of growth, pregnancy or milk)
Name the most concentrated energy source for cows.
What are some common feed ingredients that can be used to increase the energy density of the cow’s diet?
Forages, fat-supplements, cereal grains, by-product feeds
Name some high energy forages.
Corn silage, small grain silage
Name some examples of high energy cereal grains.
Corn, barley, sorghum