Flashcards in Anthropology Exam #2 Deck (44):
where does the Pocahontas image comes form and what makes the story suspect as factual history?
it comes from a "savage-squaw" tribe, its roughly based on facts
How the image has been useful as a colonizing device
it made the natives seem more approachable and weak looking
the princess-squaw dichotomy in dominant cultural imagery about indian woman
they are considered bad indians, if they don't lust or help white men.
how Indian women are "constructed" in relation to white men;to landscapes
Indian women were portrayed as a joke, drinking, smoking, and having sex
What Ross means when she says Native women are criminalized for being victims and for fighting back
she means that Native women are often pre-victimized before becoming violent
What are the relationships between contemporary incarceration and a Native history or reservations and boarding schools
Are equally bad, complete violation of a person
Why Native Americans are criminalized for practicing traditional culture
this is because Indian traditions are viewed as voo-doo, medizine as drugs
Why "rehabiliation" as defined by the dominant culture may present conflicts for American indian peoples
Because AIRFRA was often ignored which is a violation of native rights
The nature and extent of sterilization of Indian women in the US since the 1970's
Thousands of women were uninformed of the consequences of the surgery pre op
Why the concept of “institutionalized discrimination” describes the policy of sterilization of Indian women
Rule 120 was often overlooked, due to cultural and societal realities
How the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) was put in place to address related issues around Indian children
It was put in place to preserve the race of Native Indians as well to maintain their complex future and beliefs
How the policies of sterilization and removal of children from homes was impacted by physicians, social workers, and the Mormon church, and why Indian women were particularly susceptible to it.
Native women were against it, physicians, social workers burned from it and the taking of children, while Mormons could only adoption Indian children
Three to four aspects of Indian repatriation that are covered under the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA)
...was created to protect the 4 categories of cultural items
1. ancestral human remains
2. funerary objects
3. sacred objects
4. objects of cultural patrimony
Some of the important tenets of NAGPRA and how and when it is applied, as well as some reactions federal institutions have had to it
NAGPRA is applied when remains are found.
If found on tribal land: "automatically the tribes prop"
if found on federal land: "must fill out paperwork and process to own"
What the difference is that Cook-Lynn theorizes between “anti-Indianism” and “race dialogue” or “racism.”
Anti-indianism is about the discrimination as a whole. Race dialogue is the dialogue between Indigenous peoples and immigrants.
The implications of phrases such as “history repeats itself” in the context of colonialism and why she feels the ability to control “the story” is about colonizing power
The phrase is true because the evidence is there. 911 & the Iraq war, and Little Big Horn and the war with Sioux Tribe
Understand why nostalgic images and stereotypes (in photography, art, films, etc.) are disempowering to Native peoples
They are disempowering because the stereotype is always assumed never overlooked. For examples, Red Skins, the braves sports team mascots represent savogery
The failure of politics, nationhood, soverighty, possession of land, indigenousness, and self-determination
Understand the roles of Hopi clowns and kachinas in the society. What is being represented? What is being taught?
The Hopi Clown represent the lesson that no one is perfect. The kachinas dance represents a purity ceremony entering a new world.
relating, based on or traced, to material blood line
relating to residence with the wife's family or tribe
Be able to name and describe several categories of American Indian art as categorized by the author.
1. Anthropological Art
4. Market Oriented Art
5. Fine Art
6. Socially Critical Art
Understand how white patrons have directed the subject matter, style, and materials of “Indian” art.
It has driven it to continue, because for most its a means of money to support family
Understand what the author means by the “art/culture” system.
Is the system developed to define and create authenticity
Understand the characteristics of traditional Native views about health and dis-ease.
The beliefs and practices were codified in various tribal taboos, customs, and these practices were taught from early childhood
Know some of the provisions of the 1976 Indian Health Care Improvement Act
gave IHS the authorization to fund or to support existing urban based Indian health programs
Be familiar with the leading causes of death for younger Indian people, as well as the major types of diseases that impact Indian people generally.
less healers = less people healed, smallpox, flu, traditional herbal, and holistic medicine was inefective
Understand the factors contributing to the health disparities between the Native and non-Native populations.
Alcoholism and heart disease have almost doubled. Are more likely to have type 2 diabetes
Understand the reasons many Indian people resist participating in or being the subjects of medical research.
After participating in outsider research, natives are shunned and even disrespectful to their tribes
Understand the data regarding the way Indians metabolize alcohol.
No data is accurate, no real basis only a myth
Know what some of the socioeconomic factors are that explain alcohol-related behaviors in Indians.
Anxiety drinking, recreational drinking
Be able to give three reasons why Indian rates of alcohol-related death are so high.
The mixing of...
1. High risk environments
2. flamboyant drinking styles
3. risky post-drinking behavior
Understand how the uncritical use of statistics leads to misconceptions about Indian drinking.
Statistics represent a whole "general", not an individual "specific"
Understand the realities of FAS in Indian communities.
Most tribes are aware of the FAS syndrome and take precautions towards it.
Understand what some of the barriers are to integrating THP (Traditional Health Practices) with contemporary medicine.
All barriers have to do with support of THP
1. support for and barriers to THP
2. Competing cultural values that have implications for the definition and treatments of illness
3. broadening community support for THP
4. Will address implications for research and the potential benefits of AI/AN communities
Be able to describe some of the differences in the way western medicine approaches healing and the way it’s approached under THP.
Western medicine is based on physical symptoms, THP is based on many different practices
Understand the relationships between prevalent medical conditions in Indian communities and historical trauma, as well as the way THP can be effective in relation to these factors.
THP is effective when believed in
Be able to describe ways in which the education of girls was seen as the way to raise virtuous Indian men, and the Victorian “cult of true womanhood” aspects of their education.
This way was created because strong women, bare strong men, which in turn creates a strong future
Understand why Indian girls often retained more of the traditional ways and why this contrasted with the interests of the Indian boys.
This is because girls didn't like school, while the males were sent to learn by their fathers. The females were more interested in traditional readings
Understand how “ethnocentric agendas” of the schools for Indians related to (a) religious conversion, (b) assimilation theory, and (c) ethnocide
The ethnocentric agendas were created through schools as a sergeant belief system to create Christian/Native society as a crossover gang.
Why are the puberty ceremonies of young women important? What do they signal to young Indian women?
They are important because women bare children, can bring life into the world. Girls are trained their whole lives for this ceremony
Understand why the Indian New Deal policies of the 1930s were significant in signaling a change in Indian education.
The New Deal policies all grants scholarships and loans for Indian women and men to afford higher education
Know how Indian educational efforts were important in the birth of the “Red Power” movements of the 1960s and ‘70s
They were important to create a valid team effort as well t create strong future for native people