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Flashcards in PR FINAL Deck (119):
1

Practitioners have the say over what is said, how it is said, when it is said, and, to some extent, to whom it is said. Ex: press conferences, press releases, media kits, content provided from within the company

is this controlled or uncontrolled media?

controlled media

2

Practitioners have no direct role in decisions about media content. Ex: news, blogs, content provided from other agencies not within the company

is this controlled of uncontrolled media?

uncontrolled

3

________ still form the core of the nation’s public information system

Mass media

4

traditional media outlets have?

moved online and lost control of the flow of information

5

when dealing with media convergence and new media players, Organizations must ?

now integrate communication functions

6

when dealing with media convergence and new media players, practitioners must?

now work with nontraditional media gatekeepers and influencers

7

PR work requires an understanding of which 4 things?

The traditional media

Various media and their production requirements

The values of the gatekeepers who control access

That media are constrained by mechanical requirements, values, and rules

8

Practitioners must have both _____ and ______ confidence

organizational and media

9

Practitioners and journalists operate in a mutually______, mutually _________ relationship

dependent; beneficial

10

the following s a guideline for good media relations

shoot straight

yes

11

the following s a guideline for good media relations

give service

yes

12

the following s a guideline for good media relations

be ethical

no

13

the following s a guideline for good media relations

do not beg or whine

yes

14

the following s a guideline for good media relations

always be on the front line

no

15

the following s a guideline for good media relations

do not ask for "kills"

yes

16

the following s a guideline for good media relations

do not flood the media

yes

17

the following s a guideline for good media relations

do not overlook what is trending

no

18

always talk from the organizations point of the publics interest, not the viewpoint. T/F?

false, talk from the viewpoint always not the organization

19

If you do not want a statement quoted, do not make it. T/F?

true!

20

when working with the media, when should you state the most important fact?

in the beginning

21

what are the 2 rules when dealing with reporters?

do not argue with them and do not lose your cool

22

when working with the media,
If a question contains words you do not like, do not repeat them in your answer. T/f?

true

23

when working with the media,
If the reporter asks a direct question, answer in a detailed manner so that your bases are covered. T/F?

false, always give an equally direct answer.

24

when working with the media,
If you do not know the answer to a question, simply say?

“I do not know, but I will get the answer for you.”

25

when working with the media, should you always be truthful?

yes, even if it hurts

26

when working with the media, DO/DO NOT call a press conference unless reporters will consider it to be news.

DO NOT call

27

what are the PR problems that must be defined?

the problem statement and the situation analysis

28

what does the situation analysis contain?

internal/external factors and SWOT analysis

29

how to write a problem statement?

it is written in the present tense: what is happening now?

describes the situation in detail. what, when, where, who why, and how?

do not imply solutions or place blame

30

All that is known about the situation including its history, forces operating on it, those affected internally and externally, etc is known as?

situation analysis

31

organizational policies, procedures, and actions is considered internal or external factor?

internal

32

does internal or external factor include communication audit?

internal factors

33

internal factors are both positive and negative. T/F?

false, external factors only

34

does internal or external factors include stakeholder analysis?

external

35

_______ is the process of identifying who is involved and who is affected in a situation

situation analysis

36

is this considered informal or formal research method?

Personal contact and observation

Informal Research Methods

37

is this considered informal or formal research method?

Key informants

Informal Research Methods

38

is this considered informal or formal research method?

Focus groups

Informal Research Methods

39

is this considered informal or formal research method?

Community forums

Informal Research Methods

40

is this considered informal or formal research method?

Help answer questions that cannot be answered adequately using the other methods

Formal Methods

41

is this considered informal or formal research method?

Advisory committees and boards

Informal Research Methods

42

is this considered informal or formal research method?

The research question and objectives must be clearly determined in advance

Formal Methods

43

is this considered informal or formal research method?

Social media and other online resources

Informal Research Methods

44

is this considered informal or formal research method?

Help practitioners make accurate statements about publics based on evidence drawn from representative samples

Formal Methods

45

is this considered informal or formal research method?

Ombudsman or ombuds officer

Informal Research Methods

46

is this considered informal or formal research method?

Secondary analysis and online databases

Formal Methods

47

is this considered informal or formal research method?

Mail and email analyses

Informal Research Methods

48

is this considered informal or formal research method?

Contains Content analysis

Formal Methods

49

is this considered informal or formal research method?

Call-in telephone lines

Informal Research Methods

50

is this considered informal or formal research method?

Field reports

Informal Research Methods

51

what are the 3 tips for writing your PR goals?

Should reflect the problems or opportunities defined in the research step

Should never stand in isolation

Must make sense within the context of an organization’s vision, mission and goals

52

in the role of working theory, It is simply an idea of ?

how things might work

53

in the role of working theory, it guides the process when setting ?

program objectives, strategies, and tactics

54

in the role of working theory, It should be grounded in established ______ and _____

communication and PR theories

55

what is another word for target publics?

strategic publics

56

general publics is another name for target publics

no

57

______ publics are groups of people that can be identified by something they have in common, regardless of the situation in which they find themselves

publics across situations

58

what is an example of publics across situations?

a 30 year old woman is a 30 year old woman no matter if she is fighting in court or going to the grocery store

59

______ publics as an active social unit consisting of all those affected who recognize a common problem for which the they can seek common solutions

publics specific to situation

60

Latent publics
Aware publics
Active publics

are all under which publics?

publics specific to situations

61

_____ publics include people who are simply unaware of their connections to others and an organization with respect to some issue or other problem situation.

latent

62

_____ publics are those people who recognize that they are somehow affected in a problem shared by others but have no communicated about it with others

aware

63

_____ publics happen when when they begin to communicate and organize to do something about the situation

active

64

in a carl's jr example, which of target publics does the below represent?

people who are not aware they are affected by the issue. I have not heard about the new natural burger so I have no idea that its affecting me

latent

65

in a carl's jr example, which of target publics does the below represent?

people who are aware but are not going to do anything about it. You are aware and you don’t really care and you probably will still eat carl’s jr

aware

66

in a carl's jr example, which of target publics does the below represent?

people who are aware and actually do something about it such as boycott, protest,

active

67

which Grunig factor in situational theory of publics is below?

represents the extent to which people are aware that something is missing or amiss in a situation, thereby knowing they need information

problem recognition

68

which Grunig factor in situational theory of publics is below?

represents the extent to which people see themselves being involved and affected by a situation.

level of involvement

69

which Grunig factor in situational theory of publics is below?

represents the extent to which people see themselves limited by external factors versus seeing that they can do something about the situation

contraint recognition

70

which Grunig factor in situational theory of publics is below?

how much I can think I can do about the situation

contraint recognition

71

Grunig three predictors predict how ?

active or passive the communication behavior of a public is

72

The situational theory of publics has been widely studied using a variety of issues, also known as?

situation sets

73

_____ publics are active on all issues in the situation set

all-issue publics

74

_____ publics are inattentive and inactive on all issues in the set

apathetic publics

75

_______ publics are active on one or a limited number of related issues

single-issue publics

76

____publics are active after media coverage exposes almost everyone to the issue, making it a topic of widespread social conversation.

hot-issue publics

77

which approach to defining publics is the following?

natural or political boundaries

indicates where to find people but give little useful insight about important differences within the boundaries

geographics

78

which approach to defining publics is the following?

gender, income, age, education, are the most frequently used individual characteristics but provide little understanding of why or how people are involved or affected

demographics

79

which approach to defining publics is the following?

psychological and lifestyle characteristics widely used under the name VALS

Psychographics

80

which approach to defining publics is the following?

behind the scenes political or economic power, describes people at the tope of a power pyramid who operate across situations.

covert power

81

which approach to defining publics is the following?

uses the situations held by individuals, not attributes of the individual themselves, to identify target publics. People are identified as important in a particular situation because of the roles they play

positions

82

which approach to defining publics is the following?

identifies "knowledgeables" or "influentials" based on others perceptions of these individuals

reputation

83

which approach to defining publics is the following?

these publics are referred to as "opinion leaders" or "influencers" but they are defined as such by people in the situation of interest and are not to be confused by the cross-situational covert power group.

reputation

84

which approach to defining publics is the following?

this uses appearances on an organizational roster, list, or affiliation as the attribute relevant to a particular situation

memebership

85

which approach to defining publics is the following?

calls for observing the decision making process to learn who plays what in influencing decision in a particular situation

role in decision process

86

which approach to defining publics is the following?

means documentation with whom participants share info, form whom they seek info, and what media they use when seeking and sharing info about the particular issue or situation

communication behavior

87

broad summative statements that spell out the overall outcomes of a program

is this a goal or an objective?

a goal

88

specific knowledge, opinion, and behavioral outcomes to be achieved for each target public

is this a goal or an objective?

objective

89

what are the 4 elements of writing program objectives?

target publics - must know who we are reaching out to

outcome

Measurement - objectives must know the level to be maintained in measurable terms

Target Date - by when you want to finish by

90

which category of outcome in writing program objectives is this?

what people are aware of

knowledge outcome
predipositional outcomes, or behavioral outcomes?

knowledge

91

which category of outcome in writing program objectives is this?

how people feel

knowledge outcome
predipositional outcomes, or behavioral outcomes?

predispositional

92

which category of outcome in writing program objectives is this?

what people do

knowledge outcome
predipositional outcomes, or behavioral outcomes?

behavioral

93

behavioral change can only happen when there is opinion support in favor?

of the desired behavior

94

opinion change only happens with appropriate?

knowledge gain

95

is this a strategy or a tactic?

the overall concept, approach, or general plan to achieve an objective

strategy

96

is this a strategy or a tactic?

the actual events, media, and methods used to implement the strategy

tactic

97

are action strategies for an open or closed system response?

open

98

action strategies focus on?

internal adjustment

99

action and communication strategies should always be?

coordinated

100

communicating externally before implementing corrective internal actions. t/f?

false.
Implement corrective internal action BEFORE communicating externally

101

act ______ and responsibly

responsively

102

the communication program contains what 2 message strategies?

message content and message delivery strategies

103

both message content and message delivery must be carefully planned. T/F?

true

104

message focuses on the rewards and punishments that the receiver may experience if he engages in the requested behaviors is which compliance gaining strategy when crafting the message?

sanction

105

message focuses on how the requested behavior will help either the sender or the third party. is which compliance gaining strategy when crafting the message?

altruism

106

message relies on explanations and they can include either direc requests or hinted requests. is which compliance gaining strategy when crafting the message?

argument

107

message relies on deceit of exaggeration. is which compliance gaining strategy when crafting the message?

circumvention

108

High-fear messages + believability = ?

compliance

109

do we consider one side of an issues or both sides of an argument for the following?

if receivers oppose your positon

both

110

do we consider one side of an issues or both sides of an argument for the following?

if receivers already agree with your position, your message will have a greater impact

one sided if your bring enough proof to support you

111

do we consider one side of an issues or both sides of an argument for the following?

if receivers are well educated

both sides

112

do we consider one side of an issues or both sides of an argument for the following?

if receivers are likely to be exposed later to persuasive messages countering your position

both

113

Previously learned information affects how people react to and interpret new messages represents which theory?

priming

114

generally accepted by most people with the same language and culture. is this denotative or connotative?

denotative

115

meaning is the emotional or evaluative meaning we read into words because of our experience and background. is this denotative or connotative?

connotative

116

_______ is the science of what words mean. semantics or symbols?

semantics

117

______ refers to the process by which new ideas and practices are spread to members of a social system

diffusion

118

what does SMART stand for?

specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, and timebound

119

what does SMART describe?

the 4 criteria of an objective