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Flashcards in Chapter 2 MHR 318 Deck (99):
1

______ is the pattern of relatively enduring ways that a person feels, thinks, and behaves
Traits of behavior that remain the same.

Personality

2

why is personality an important factor?

Personality is an important factor in accounting for why employees act the way they do in organizations and why they have favorable or unfavorable attitudes toward their jobs and organizations.

3

Personality is partially determined by ?

nature or biological heritage

4

. About half of the variation we observe in employees’ personalities in organizations reflects the distinctive ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving they inherited. The other 50 percent reflects the influence of ?

nurture or life experiences.

5

nature vs nurture

natures is biological and nurture is life experiences

6

It is the interaction of what two factors that determine how people think, feel, and behave in general and how they do so within an organization.

personality and situational factors

7

Why is personality a determinant of the nature of organizations?

Individuals with similar personalities tend to be attracted to an organization (attraction) and hired by it (selection) and individuals with other types of personalities tend to leave the organization (attrition)

8

a specific component of personality is called what?

a trait

9

Personality trait that predisposes individuals to experience positive emotional states and feel good about themselves and the world around them

extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, or openness to experience?

extraversion

10

extraversion is also considered negative affectivity. t or f?

false, it is a positive affectivity

11

Personality trait that reflects people’s tendency to experience negative emotional states, feel distressed, and generally view themselves Personality trait that reflects people’s tendency to experience negative emotional states, feel distressed, and generally view themselves and the world around them negatively
and the world around them negatively

extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, or openness to experience?

neuroticism

12

extraversion is based on a continuum from low to high. t or f?

false, it is based on a continuum from high to low

13

All psychologically healthy individuals possess neuroticism to a certain degree. t or f?

true

14

Personality trait that describes the extent to which an individual is careful, scrupulous, and persevering

extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, or openness to experience?

conscientiousness

15

Those with a high or low level of conscientiousness are organized and have a lot of self-discipline.

high

16

Personality trait that captures the distinction between individuals who get along well with other people and those who do not

extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, or openness to experience?

agreeableness

17

Individuals who are high or low in agreeableness tend to be good team players. They are likable and affectionate

high

18

Those with high or low levels of agreeableness are antagonistic and mistrustful.

low

19

Employees with a high or low level of conscientiousness lack direction and discipline.

low

20

Personality trait that captures the extent to which an individual is original, open to a wide variety of stimuli, has broad interests, and is
willing to take risks as opposed to being narrow-minded and cautious

extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, or openness to experience?

openness to experience

21

For openness to experience to pay off for organizations, jobs should or should not be too closely defined.

should not

22

describe the big five model of personality?

contains different personality dimensions and its specific traits. each dimension is a continuum where any one can be high, low, average, or anywhere on the continuum for each trait

23

Individuals who are _______ may have an advantage in jobs that change frequently, require innovation, or involve considerable risk.

extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, or openness to experience?

open to experience

24

which personality trait is the below that is relevant to organizations?

Describes people who believe that fate, luck, or outside forces are responsible for what happens to them


type of locus of control, self-monitoring, self-esteem, type A and type B personality, need for achievement, need for affiliation, or need for power

external locus of control

25

which personality trait is the below that is relevant to organizations?

Describes people who believe that ability, effort, or their own actions determine what happens to them



type of locus of control, self-monitoring, self-esteem, type A and type B personality, need for achievement, need for affiliation, or need for power

internal locus control

26

which personality trait is the below that is relevant to organizations?

______ is the extent to which people have pride in themselves and their capabilities



type of locus of control, self-monitoring, self-esteem, type A and type B personality, need for achievement, need for affiliation, or need for power

Self-esteem

27

which personality trait is the below that is relevant to organizations?

_____ is the extent to which people try to control the way they present themselves to others



type of locus of control, self-monitoring, self-esteem, type A and type B personality, need for achievement, need for affiliation, or need for power

Self-monitoring

28

When people with an internal/external locus of control perform well, they are likely to attribute their performance to qualities within themselves such as effort and ability. Those with an internal/external locus of control will tend to attribute good performance to luck.

internal, external

29

Internal/external locus of control tend to require less supervision than externals/internals

internal, externals

30


High or low self-monitors strive for socially acceptable behavior and are good at impression management

hugh

31

High or low self-monitors are guided by their own attitudes and beliefs and are not concerned with what others think.

low

32

High or low self-monitors may be especially adept at providing open, honest feedback and playing devil’s advocate in decision-making groups.

low

33


High or low self-monitors may perform well in jobs such as sales or consulting because they modify their behavior to be appropriate for whomever they are interacting with.

high

34

People with high/low self-esteem feel capable, confident, and worthy as opposed to those with high/low self-esteem have questionable self-worth, doubt, and apprehension about their ability to succeed.

high, low

35

which personality trait is the below that is relevant to organizations?

____ have an intense desire to achieve, are extremely competitive and has a strong sense of urgency

type of locus of control, self-monitoring, self-esteem, type A and type B personality, need for achievement, need for affiliation, or need for power

type A personality

36

which personality trait is the below that is relevant to organizations?

____ is a person who tends to be easy going and relaxed


type of locus of control, self-monitoring, self-esteem, type A and type B personality, need for achievement, need for affiliation, or need for power

type B personality

37

which personality trait is the below that is relevant to organizations?

the desire to exert emotional and behavioral control of influence over others


type of locus of control, self-monitoring, self-esteem, type A and type B personality, need for achievement, need for affiliation, or need for power

need for power

38

which personality trait is the below that is relevant to organizations?

the desire to establish and maintain good relations with others

type of locus of control, self-monitoring, self-esteem, type A and type B personality, need for achievement, need for affiliation, or need for power

need for affiliation

39

which personality trait is the below that is relevant to organizations?

the desire to perform challenging tasks well and to meet ones own high standards

type of locus of control, self-monitoring, self-esteem, type A and type B personality, need for achievement, need for affiliation, or need for power

need for achievement

40

how is personality measured?

through scales developed to measure personalty. by doing so, individuals answer a series of questions about themselves

41

describe the nature of ability

the mental pr physical capacity to do something

it determines the level of performance an employee can achieve

42

what are the different kinds of abilities?

cognitive (mental) and physical ability

43

the most general dimension of ____ ability is general intelligence

cognitive

44

motor skill vs physical skill. this is cognitive or physical ability?

physical

motor skill = ability to physically manipulate objects in an environment.

physical skill = persons fitness and strength

45

you need both of what to determine physical and cognitive ability?

nature and nurture

46

what cognitive ability is listed below?

ability to uncover visual patterns and see relationships within and across patterns


verbal, numerical, reasoning, deductive, ability to see relationships, spatial ability, perceptual

perceptual

47

what cognitive ability is listed below?

ability to understand and use written and spoken language


verbal, numerical, reasoning, deductive, ability to see relationships, spatial ability, perceptual

verbal

48

what cognitive ability is listed below?


ability to recall things ranging fro simple associations to complex groups of statements or sentences

verbal, numerical, reasoning, deductive, ability to see relationships, spatial ability, perceptual

ability to remember

49

what cognitive ability is listed below?

ability to determine the location or arrangement of objects in relation to ones own position and to imagine how an object would appear if its position in space were altered



verbal, numerical, reasoning, deductive, ability to see relationships, spatial ability, perceptual

spatial ability

50

what cognitive ability is listed below?

ability to solve arithmetic problems and deal with numbers



verbal, numerical, reasoning, deductive, ability to see relationships, spatial ability, perceptual

numerical

51

what cognitive ability is listed below?


ability to reach appropriate conclusions from an array of observations or evaluate the implications of a series of facts

verbal, numerical, reasoning, deductive, ability to see relationships, spatial ability, perceptual

deductive

52

what cognitive ability is listed below?


ability to come up with solutions for problems and understand the principles by which different problems can be solved


verbal, numerical, reasoning, deductive, ability to see relationships, spatial ability, perceptual

reasoning

53

what cognitive ability is listed below?


ability to see how two things are related to each other and then apply this knowledge to other relationships and solutions


verbal, numerical, reasoning, deductive, ability to see relationships, spatial ability, perceptual

ability to see relationships

54

_______ are one’s personal convictions about what one should strive for in life and how one should behave

Values

55

what two values are most related with org behavior?

work and ethical values

56

Work or ethical values are employee’s personal convictions about what outcomes one should expect from work and how one should behave at work.

work

57

Work or ethical values are one’s personal convictions about what is right and wrong.

ethical

58

Work or ethical values help employees decide on the right and proper course of action and guide decision making and behavior.

ethical

59

______ are things that have worth and is important to you

values

60

Work or ethical values reflect what people are trying to achieve through and at work.

work

61

Intrinsic or Extrinsic work values are values that are related to the nature of the work itself. Employees who desire to be challenged, learn new things, make important contributions, and reach their full potential on their jobs have this work values

intrinsic

62

Intrinsic or Extrinsic values that are related to the consequences of work. Employees whose primary reason for working is to earn money, for example, have this work values

extrinsic

63

Intrinsic or Extrinsic value is when you are doing something for your own self because its important to you.

ex: you treat cliens well because you believe in treating hardworkers well

intrinsic

64

intrinsic or Extrinsic value is something that is important to you but is external

ex: a salary

extrinsic

65

intrinsic or Extrinsic value is when you want something external

extrinsic

66

to see if something is right or wrong we look at the?

ethical dilemma

67

______ is engaging in an action but cannot do both. you have to pick x or y, not both x and y

ethical dilemma

68

what are the 3 different ethical approaches?

moral rights approach
justice approach
utilitarian approach

69

is this moral rights approach, utilitarian, or justice approach?

this values dictate that decisions should be made that generate the greatest good for the greatest number of people

utilitarian

70

is this moral rights approach, utilitarian, or justice approach?

this values indicate that decisions should be made in ways that protect the fundamental rights and privileges of people affected by the decision, such as their freedom, safety, and privacy.

moral rights

71

is this moral rights approach, utilitarian, or justice approach?

this values dictate that decisions should be made in ways that allocate benefit and harm among those affected by the decision in a fair, equitable, or impartial manner.

justice

72

is this moral rights approach, utilitarian, or justice approach?

ex: if you could get away with anything without going to jail but it would hurt others, would you?

moral rights

73

____ is when someone finds the company doing something wrong or unethical, they report them by ______

whistleblowing/"whistling"

74

An _______ involves the need to choose from among two or more morally acceptable courses of action, when one choice prevents selecting the other; or, the need to choose between equally unacceptable alternatives

An ethical dilemma

75

is this moral rights approach, utilitarian, or justice approach?

focuses on the process of allocation of benefits and consequences

ex: being a manager and firing someone after the steps you've taken to warn the employee that they are on a fine line

justice approach

76

is this moral rights approach, utilitarian, or justice approach?

focuses on developing awareness on others and yourself, the rights of the people

moral rights approach

77

Employees with strong intrinsic or extrinsic values will want jobs that use their skills and abilities.

intrinsic

78

Those who primarily value work as a means of earning money and providing economic security have intrinsic or extrinsic work values.

extrinsic

79

______ are collections of feelings, beliefs, and thoughts about how to behave that people currently hold about their jobs and organizations

Work attitudes

80

the _____ component that makes up the work attitudes is the employees feelings

affective

81

the _____ component that makes up the work attitudes is the employees beliefs

cognitive

82

the _____ component that makes up the work attitudes is the employees thoughts about how to behave in his or her job

behavioral

83

Job satisfaction or Organizational Commitment is the collection of feelings and beliefs that people have about their current jobs.

job satisfaction

84

Job satisfaction or Organizational commitment is the collection of feelings and beliefs that people have about their organizations as a whole.

org commitment

85

_____ is how people feel at the time they actually perform their jobs

work moods

86

work moods never change and stay constant. t or f?

false, they change from hour to hour, day to day, minute to minute

87

______ rude interpersonal behaviors reflective of a lack of regard and respect for others

workplace incivility

88

______ are intense, short-lived feelings that are linked to specific cause or antecedent

emotions

89

what can cause more negative moods for organizational members?

workplace incivilty

90

______ are more transitory than values and attitudes

work moods

91

emotions can feed into _____

moods

92

the work it takes to control emotions on the job is called?

emotional labor

93

emotional labor is governed by?

display rules

94

_______ rules include feeling rule and expression rules

display rules

95

Feeling or Expression rules let employees know what feelings are appropriate in different situations

Feeling

96

______ occurs when employees are expected to express feelings that are at odds with how the employees are actually feeling

Emotional dissonance

97

Feeling or Expression rules dictate how those feelings can be expressed in different situations

expression

98

_____ can be a significant source of stress for employees.

Emotional dissonance

99

______ is particularly strenuous in customer service situations.

Emotional labor