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Flashcards in Comm Research Deck (150):
1

why is research a necessity?

because it can support your claim (more credible)

2

empirically based methods is also known as? is this considered research?

we are gathering data; yes

3

usually for private companies such as schools and are not accessible through the public

scholarly or proprietary?

proprietary

4

what professors usually do, they conduct articles and it is usually public

scholarly or proprietary?

scholarly

5

Research is defined as the process of _____ and ______.

asking questions and finding answers

6

Research is the application of ______ and _____ procedures

scientific and systematic

7

Research assumes that patterns can be covered. t o f?

false, that patterns can be uncovered.

8

which research goal is the following:

why people do the things they do and why they think they

predict
explain
determine
describe

explain

9

which research goal is the following:

technically describing WHAT happened

predict
explain
determine
describe

describe

10

which research goal is the following:

technically describing what WILL happen

predict
explain
determine
describe

explain

11

which research goal is the following:

establishing what is right and what is wrong

predict
explain
determine
describe

determine

12

which research goal is the following:

explaining what the issue is

predict
explain
determine
describe

describing

13

which research goal is the following:

like a business analysis, we make predictionxxxxx

predict
explain
determine
describe

prediction

14

what is methodological extremes?

when you shouldn't focus on one method or theory

15

quantitative or qualitative starts with theory

quantitative

16

quantitative or qualitative research answers questions to develop theory

qualitative

17

deductive or inductive?

starts with data

inductive

18

deductive or inductive?

starts with a theory

deductive

19

deductive or inductive?

gathers data to assess theory

deductive

20

deductive or inductive?

formulates theories based on data

inductive

21

deductive or inductive?

moves from known position to data

deductive

22

deductive or inductive?

moves from specific data to more general explanation

inductive

23

Communication research from the social science perspective

a) Is the discovery of answers to questions through the application of scientific and systematic procedures

b)Uses quantitative and qualitative methods

c) Is based on the assumption that research can uncover patterns

d)Is empirical

e)All of the above

E

24

Communication researchers

a) May use quantitative or qualitative methods

b)May use research questions or hypotheses

c)Publish their studies in academic journals and scholarly books

d)Collect data for their investigations

e)All of the above

e

25

A theory is a set of ideas that explains how or why something occurs or happens
t o f?

true

26

A research question is preferred over hypothesis if the researcher cannot formulate a tentative proposition after reviewing existing literature
t o f?

true

27

Researchers should rely on the one or two methods they know to answer any and all research questions and hypotheses
t o f?

false

28

The deductive research model moves from a known or assumed position to the particulars of a specific case
t o f?

true

29

As you discover new information in the library, it may be necessary to adjust or revise your initial question or topic
t o f?

true

30

Theory can be well-developed and confirmed in one research study
t o f?

false

31

Research is the basis for developing or challenging _____

theory

32

____ describes, predicts, or explain communication phenomenon

theory

33

research ideas are based on what three things?

theories, experiences, and current events

34

turn broad topics into?

preliminary questions

35

what two questions should you ask in positioning the problem statement in introduction to the literature review?

what is the communicative issue and what are the research objectives

36

what two paths should be included in the literature review?

what are you going to cover and what you hope to accomplish

37

the body of the literature review should include?

latest research and describe/analyze what researchers have reported in previous studies, and develop new arguments

38

how should you conclude the literature review?

present research questions or hypothesis

39

____ brings order, structure, and inpretation

analysis

40

analysis is always fine and detailed neatly. t or f?

false, it can be messy, ambiguous, and time consuming

41

analyis is both: ____ and _____

Open and axial coding
analytical and memo writing
relfexive and inductive

reflexive and inductive

42

It is flexible in the sense you can go back and forth like a survey, we have all the measurements we send out to tons of people. At that point if we change the questions, we make the whole survey flawed. However in a focus group, you are able to change the questions….this is what it means to be flexible.

reflexive or inductive?

reflexive

43

researchers are working from specific to general. The collection of data makes this process cyclical and evolutionary

reflexive or inductive

inductive

44

labeling and breaking down raw data to find patterns and themes that exist

analysis or interpretation

analysis

45

making sense of those patterns and themes you analyzed

analysis or interpretation

Interpretation

46

captures your first impressions of and reflections on data. Here, the researcher writes memos to him or herself.

analysis
analytical memo
interpretation
memo writing
ground theory

analytical memo

47

why is categorizing data important in research?

bc it reduces data into manageable sizes

48

Develop by examining relationships between data and categories

analysis
analytical memo
interpretation
memo writing
ground theory

ground theory

49

Use constant-comparative method to develop categories relative to each other falls under what theory?

crystalization theory
triangulation theory
ground theory

grounded theory

50

Use constant-comparative method to develop categories relative to each other

constant-comparitive theory
triangulation theory
ground theory

constant-comparitive theory

51

____ should be existing or emergent

categories

52

Everyone in the focus group must have a formed consent which means?

as in everything will be confidential.

53

what are some ways to avoid plagiarism?

using direct quotes with proper citations and using summaries or paraphrases

54

Gathering and summarizing current and/or past findings of your topic. You’re building up from the past

analysis
analytical memo
interpretation
literature review
memo writing

literature review

55

Presented in research questions and hypotheses

operationalization
variable
reliability

variable

56

Specifically how the variable is observed or measured

operationalization
variable
reliability

operationalization

57

Variable is more practical when we use it as a hypothesis. t o f?

true

58

Preserves the form and content of interaction

qualitative or quantitive

qualitative

59

contextually situated and uses discourse as data

qualitative or quantitive

qualitative

60

more objective

qualitative or quantitive

quantitative

61

more subjective

qualitative or quantitive

qualitative

62

when you do research and based on that we develop a theory.

empirical
inductive
interpretive

inductive

63

Propositions formulated continuously throughout the data collection and data analysis process


empirical
inductive
interpretive

inductive

64

Explanations and theories emerge from the data


empirical
inductive
interpretive

inductive

65

collecting data

empirical
inductive
interpretive

empirical

66

o How we say something is more credible in a qualitative research: there are several different techniques and methods such as:

triangulation or member validation

triangulation

67

which triangulation is below?

having opinions from different disciplines such as social media, or people from psych department, or people from comm department, or people from the medial department.

data
investigator
interdisciplinary
member validation

interdisciplinary

68

which triangulation is below?

when we get different types of data of the same problem. Ex: what is the difference between depression and social media. Sung creates a focus group or a survey..those are two different types of data.

data
investigator
interdisciplinary
member validation

data

69

which triangulation is below?

not my observation but bringing others into the mix to have their observations

data
investigator
interdisciplinary
member validation

investigator

70

which triangulation is below?

when you go back and ask participants if the findings you have are accurate/true

data
investigator
interdisciplinary
member validation

member validation or member check

71

Which of the following statements is not true?

a)Qualitative research preserves the form and content of human interaction

b)Qualitative research is not empirically based

c)The qualitative researcher is interested in the whole of the phenomenon under study

d)Qualitative research aims for subjectivity

e)The context in which qualitative data are collected cannot be imposed

B

72

Qualitative research is that in which data are analyzed for its qualities, not its quantities t or f?

true

73

Hypotheses are seldom used in qualitative research t o f?

true

74

Researchers using qualitative methods try to provide a degree of objectivity to their research by minimizing the voice of participants
t o f?

false

75

Role of researcher is integrated within the context of individuals ?

being observed

76

selecting the participant that matches my research.

snowball sampling
purposive sampling
maximum variation sampling
gate keeper

purposive sampling

77

Ex: we do multiple focus groups and by the time their answers become redundant, than it is safe to stop the research. this is an example of?

snowball sampling
purposive sampling
maximum variation sampling
gate keeper

maximum variation

78

you introduce someone and then you proceed to ask them a question; especially with sensitive topics.

snowball sampling
purposive sampling
maximum variation sampling
gate keeper

snowball sampling

79

continuing the process as much as possible so we don’t get new responses

snowball sampling
purposive sampling
maximum variation sampling
gate keeper

maximum variation

80

ex: to interview a journalists, it is best to go through them such as the editor to gain access to the journalist. this is an example of?

snowball sampling
purposive sampling
maximum variation sampling
gate keeper

gate keeper

81

Ex: we want to know how it felt to be high. So I would interview a weed smoker, who would then introduce and refer me to other stoners where I can collect data

an example of what?

snowball sampling
purposive sampling
maximum variation sampling
gate keeper

snowball sampling

82

Sponser is another name

snowball sampling
purposive sampling
maximum variation sampling
gate keeper

gatekeeper

83

So if my paper is about elderly peoples feelings on social media, I will go out and find elders to talk to is an example of what?

snowball sampling
purposive sampling
maximum variation sampling
gate keeper

purposive sampling

84

Pretty much everything from notes to non verbal acts is what constitutes data in a qualitative research. t o f?

true! literally everything you find in your study is data

85

in sample size, not enough data will...

limit interpretation

86

in sample size, too much data can...

be paralyzing

87

sample sizing can be predetermined t o f?

false, it cannot be predetermined

88

there is enough sample size when more information is continuously being added. t o f?

false, there is enough data when new information is NOT being added

89

there is enough data when existing information is not challenged, t o f?

true

90

You don't need a map when becoming familiar with people and places. t o f?

false, it is good to draw a map of the interaction setting

91

it is good to ask for a tour and for relevant background when becoming familiar with people and places t o f?

true

92

Your sex, age, and ethnicity affect what you observe and how you observe it t o f?

true

93

You do not need to report similarities and differences that you believe affect your data collection or interpretation t o f?

false, you do need to report

94

in observing and researching, your teams do not need to be diverse. t o f?

false, they should be diverse

95

______ occurs when the researcher is no longer hearing or seeing new information

snowball sampling
purposive sampling
maximum variation
data saturation

Data saturation

96

objectivity or subjectivity is personal neutrality; it allows the facts to speak for themselves and not be influenced by the personal values and biases of the researcher

objectivity

97

objectivity or subjectivity is judgment based on individual personal impressions and feelings and opinions rather than external facts

subjectivity

98

what, who, when, and where is considered describing or analyzing?

describing

99

why and how is considered describing or analyzing?

analyzing

100

what are the two methods for transcribing field notes?

word for word transcription and adding additional reflection/q's as you transcribe

101

interviewing discovers how people ____ and ____ about their communication practices

think and feel

102

what is the goal of interviewing?

to only ask questions to get answers

to uncover participants point of view(s)

to gather verbal data cues only

to uncover participants point of views

103

interviews are only formal t o f?

false, they can be informal too or both at the same time

104

is the below considered a strength or a limitation when it comes to [online] interviewing?

low cost

strength

105

is the below considered a strength or a limitation when it comes to [online] interviewing?

there can be difficulty to develop rapport

limitations

106

is the below considered a strength or a limitation when it comes to [online] interviewing?

hard to know when participant is confused by your question(s)

limitations

107

is the below considered a strength or a limitation when it comes to [online] interviewing?

easy to collect data from people are geographically distant

strength

108

is the below considered a strength or a limitation when it comes to [online] interviewing?

some techniques can provide some privacy in discussing sensitive issues

strength

109

is the below considered a strength or a limitation when it comes to [online] interviewing?

can give participant opportunity to develop fictional social reality

limitations

110

is the below considered a strength or a limitation when it comes to [online] interviewing?

can take longer at times but provides more data

limitations

111

interviews can be best done when it's one-on-one t o f?

false, it is best done in pairs one to interview and one to take notes

112

is the below considered a strength or a limitation when it comes to [online] interviewing?

face to face setting allows you to probe and follow up

strength

113

is the below considered a strength or a limitation when it comes to [online] interviewing?

Interviews produce an enormous amount of data

limitation

114

is the below considered a strength or a limitation when it comes to [online] interviewing?

Participant can stray off course

limitation

115

is the below considered a strength or a limitation when it comes to [online] interviewing?

Can collect data you cannot observe

strength

116

is the below considered a strength or a limitation when it comes to [online] interviewing?

Participant may be hesitant to talk

limitation

117

focus groups are usually....

1-2
4-8
5-10
12-18

5-10

118

focus groups generally last ..

5-10 mins
30-45 mins
60-90 mins
half a day
all day

60-90 mins

119

how much should you over recruit by?

5%
10%
15%
20%

20%

120

the focus group moderator may not be the researcher. t o f?

true

121

focus group moderator must be someone who is perceived as credible t o f?

true

122

the focus group moderator is also considered an interviewer and can be a participant when not moderating. t o f?

false, they cannot be an interviewer nor a participant

123

is this considered a strength or limitation of focus groups?

Talkative or overly opinionated participants

limitation

124

is this considered a strength or limitation of focus groups?

Hesitant to express opinions opposite of others’ opinions

limitation

125

is this considered a strength or limitation of focus groups?

Provides views and opinions in participants’ own words

strength

126

is this considered a strength or limitation of focus groups?

Allows consensus or conflict to emerge among participants

strength

127

is this considered a strength or limitation of focus groups?

Researcher can over influence

limitation

128

is this considered a strength or limitation of focus groups?

Can generate information about same topic from different people

strength

129

is this considered a strength or limitation of focus groups?

Easy to overgeneralize findings

limitation

130

is this considered a strength or limitation of narrative research?

Richness and depth of data

strengths

131

is this considered a strength or limitation of narrative research?

Collect data about communication events that would be difficult or impossible to observe

strengths

132

is this considered a strength or limitation of narrative research?

Generalizability of findings can be restricted

limitation

133

is this considered a strength or limitation of narrative research?

Risk in asking participants to recall troubling or negative stories

limitation

134

collecting narratives or
ethnography

People tell stories as a way of knowing, understanding, and explaining their lives

Collecting narratives

135

collecting narratives or
ethnography

Study and representation of people and interactions

ethnography

136

collecting narratives or
ethnography

Reveals participant’s point of view

Collecting narratives

137

collecting narratives or
ethnography

Uncover how isolated events are part of a larger environment

Collecting narratives

138

collecting narratives or
ethnography

Holistic description of interactants in their cultural or subcultural group

ethnography

139

collecting narratives or
ethnography

Uncover justifications people give for past actions

Collecting narratives

140

collecting narratives or
ethnography

Researcher immersed into interaction field for long periods

ethnography

141

collecting narratives or
ethnography

_____ of communication

ethnography

142

collecting narratives or
ethnography

Autoethnography

ethnography

143

collecting narratives or
ethnography

Share the environment of those being studied

ethnography

144

collecting narratives or
ethnography

Capture interaction as it occurs in its natural context

ethnography

145

collecting narratives or
ethnography

Experience firsthand the problems, background, language, rituals, and social relations of a specific group of people

ethnography

146

is below considered a strength or limitation of ethnographic research?

Can over-identify with participants

limitation

147

is below considered a strength or limitation of ethnographic research?

Researcher develops intimacy with communicators and context otherwise not possible

strength

148

is below considered a strength or limitation of ethnographic research?

Researcher must be saturated in the data to write the research report

limitation

149

is below considered a strength or limitation of ethnographic research?

Time commitment

limitation

150

is below considered a strength or limitation of ethnographic research?

Rich deep description

strength