Chapter 4 MHR 318 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 MHR 318 Deck (39):
1

______ is the process by which individuals select, organize, and interpret the input from their senses to give meaning and order to the world around them

Perception

2

what type of perceptions are important because perceptions affect motivation and performance, fairness and equity, and the ability to make ethical decisions.

Accurate perceptions

3

what are the 3 components of perceptions?

perceiver, target, and situation

4

person trying to interpret some observation that he or she has just made or the input from his or her senses

which component of perception: perceiver, target, or situation?

Perceiver:

5

whatever the perceiver is trying to make sense of

which component of perception: perceiver, target, or situation?

Target of Perception:

6

the context in which perception takes place

which component of perception: perceiver, target, or situation?

Situation:

7

which organizing perceptual data is the following? Similarity, Figure-Ground, Proximity, Closure, Continuity, or Simplicity?

what is in front compared to what is in the background

figure ground

8

which organizing perceptual data is the following? Similarity, Figure-Ground, Proximity, Closure, Continuity, or Simplicity?

reducing things to their simplest shapes or patterns

simplicity

9

which organizing perceptual data is the following? Similarity, Figure-Ground, Proximity, Closure, Continuity, or Simplicity?

filling in the gaps

proximity, closure

10

which organizing perceptual data is the following? Similarity, Figure-Ground, Proximity, Closure, Continuity, or Simplicity?

continue things in a direction they seem to be heading

continuity

11

which perceptual bias is the following: Selective Perception, Halo / Horn Effect, Self-fulfilling prophecy, Systemic Error, Effect of Recent Events, Contrast / Similarity Error

usually if rater is comparing the performer to how the rater did the work when in a similar position.

Contrast / Similarity --

12

which perceptual bias is the following: Selective Perception, Halo / Horn Effect, Self-fulfilling prophecy, Systemic Error, Effect of Recent Events, Contrast / Similarity Error

don’t really know how the person has done, so give them an ‘average’ rating so don’t have to justify the evaluation either way.

Central tendency -

13

which perceptual bias is the following: Selective Perception, Halo / Horn Effect, Self-fulfilling prophecy, Systemic Error, Effect of Recent Events, Contrast / Similarity Error

rating unduly influenced by ‘what’s happened lately’ rather than performance oer time.


Recent events --

14

which perceptual bias is the following: Selective Perception, Halo / Horn Effect, Self-fulfilling prophecy, Systemic Error, Effect of Recent Events, Contrast / Similarity Error

a particular evaluator tends to rate everyone the same way -- reduces the credibility of the feedback and result in serious equity problems. Feedback only works if it is specific (and timely).

Systemic error -

15

which perceptual bias is the following: Selective Perception, Halo / Horn Effect, Self-fulfilling prophecy, Systemic Error, Effect of Recent Events, Contrast / Similarity Error

tend to be more sensitive and receptie to aspects of his/her bheavior that confirm our attitudes (including stereotypes).

Selective Perception

16

which perceptual bias is the following: Selective Perception, Halo / Horn Effect, Self-fulfilling prophecy, Systemic Error, Effect of Recent Events, Contrast / Similarity Error

person can do no wrong, or do no right. We extend our view of some positive or negative personality trait to every thing they do.

Halo --

17

Halo is also known as the what?

Mdeity effect

18

perceivers do passively process information. t or f?

false, they do not

19

experience of knowledge is also known as what characteristics of the perceiver??

motivational states, schemas, or moods

schemas

20

their needs and desires are known as what characteristics of the perceiver?

motivational states, schemas, or moods

motivational states

21

what filters information into a persons perception of reality?

the characteristics of the perceiver

22

_____ are abstract knowledge structures that are stored in memory and allow people to organize and interpret information about a given target of perception

Motivational states, schemas, or moods

Schemas

23

Schemas are slow to change and people must encounter a considerable amount of contradictory information before their schemas are altered. t or f?

true

24

schemas influence the sensory input and pay attention to every little detail. t or f?

false, Schemas also influence the sensory input we pay attention to and the input we ignore. Once a schema is activated, we tend to notice information that is consistent with the schema and ignore or discount information that is inconsistent.

25

Help to make sense of sensory input, choose what information to pay attention to and what to ignore, and guide perceptions of ambiguous information

is this functional or dysfunctional type of schemas?

functional

26

when we use past experiences and knowledge to make sense of a current situation, it is then organized into what?

schemas

27

when schemas result in inaccurate perceptions

is this functional or dysfunctional type of schemas?

dysfunctional

28

_____ are a type of dysfunctional schema. They are often based on inaccurate information and are assigned

Stereotypes

29

Generalizations based on limited information. Set of overly simplified and often inaccurate beliefs about the typical characteristics of a particular group. this is called?

a stereotype

30

Individual similarities and differences is called?

diversity

31

Social identity theory or Attribution theory refers to the part of the individual’s self-concept that derives from his or her membership in a particular group and the value and emotional significance attached to that group membership.

Social identity theory

32

is this Social Categorization , Social Comparison, or Self-esteem?

we group self-and similar into in-groups.

And group others different to us into out-groups.

This is done to evaluate the groups to which we belong.

social comparision

33

is this Social Categorization , Social Comparison, or Self-esteem?

Due to our brains limited capacity to process information we place people into groups to simplify our understanding of the world.

social categorization

34

name what the D.I.E process stands for

describe, interpret, evaluate

35

_____ are the needs, values, and desires of a perceiver at the time of perception

Motivational states, schemas, or moods

Motivational states

36

_____ are how a perceiver feels at the time of perception

Motivational states, schemas, or moods

Moods

37

When a target is ambiguous, the perceiver needs to engage in more interpretation to form ?

a perception of the target

38

. The more ambiguous a target is the more potential there is for errors in perception. t or f?

true

39

is a person’s real or perceived position in society or in an organization

Social status