Chapter 6 MHR 318 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6 MHR 318 Deck (87):
1

_____ is the psychological forces within a person that determine
the direction of a person’s behavior in an organization,
a person’s level of effort, and
a person’s level of persistence in the face of obstacles

motivation
work motivation
performance

Work motivation

2

Motivation is important because it explains why ?

employees behave as they do.

3

which element of work motivation is below?

How hard does a person
work to perform a
chosen behavior?

direction of behavior
level of effort
level of persistence

level of effort

4

which element of work motivation is below?

Which behaviors does a
person choose to perform
in an organization?

direction of behavior
level of effort
level of persistence

direction of behavior

5

which element of work motivation is below?

When faced with obstacles,
how hard does a person keep

trying to perform a
chosen behavior successfully?

direction of behavior
level of effort
level of persistence

level of persistence

6

which element of work motivation is below?

“ Does an engineer take the time and effort to convince a skeptical superior of the need to change the design specifications for a new product to lower production costs?”

direction of behavior
level of effort
level of persistence

direction of behavior

7

which element of work motivation is below?

When the supervisor disagrees with the engineer and indicates that a change in specification is a waste of time, does the engineer persist in trying to get the change implemented or give up despite his or her strong belief in the need for change?”

direction of behavior
level of effort
level of persistence

level of persistence

8

which element of work motivation is below?

“Does an engineer prepare a report outlining problems with the original specifications, or does the engineer casually mention the issue when he or she bumps into the supervisor in the hall and hope that the supervisor will take the advice on faith?

direction of behavior
level of effort
level of persistence

level of effort

9

______ is an evaluation of the results of a person’s behavior

work motivation
performance
motivation

Performance

10

______ is only one factor among many that contributes to an employee’s job performance

work motivation
performance
motivation

Motivation

11

because motivation is only one of several factors that can affect performance, a high level of motivation does not always result in a high level of performance t or f?

true

12

intrinsic or extrinsic motivation?

Source of motivation is acquisition of material or social rewards or to avoid punishment

extrinsic

13

intrinsic or extrinsic motivation?

Source of motivation is actually performing the behavior

intrinsic

14

intrinsic or extrinsic motivation?

Behavior performed for its own sake

intrinsic

15

which theory does below apply?

Employees have needs that they are motivated to satisfy in the workplace

Need Theory
Expectancy Theory
Equity Theory
Organizational Justice Theory

need theory

16

which theory does below apply?

The principal message of this theory is that employees have needs that they are motivated to satisfy in the workplace and that to determine which outcomes motivate employees, a manager must determine which needs employees are trying to satisfy.

Need Theory
Expectancy Theory
Equity Theory
Organizational Justice Theory

need theory

17

which Maslow's hierarchy of needs does the below satisfy?

needs for security, stability, and a safe environment


self-actualization needs
esteem needs
belongingness needs
safety needs
physiological needs

safety needs

18

which Maslow's hierarchy of needs does the below satisfy?

needs to feel good about onself and ones capabilities, to be respected by others, and to receive recognition and appreciation

self-actualization needs
esteem needs
belongingness needs
safety needs
physiological needs

esteem needs

19

which Maslow's hierarchy of needs does the below satisfy?

basic needs for things such as food, water, and shelter that must be met in order for an individual to survive

self-actualization needs
esteem needs
belongingness needs
safety needs
physiological needs

physiological needs

20

which Maslow's hierarchy of needs does the below satisfy?

needs for social interaction, friendship, affection, and love

self-actualization needs
esteem needs
belongingness needs
safety needs
physiological needs

belongingness needs

21

which Maslow's hierarchy of needs does the below satisfy?

needs to realize ones full potential as a human being

self-actualization needs
esteem needs
belongingness needs
safety needs
physiological needs

self-actualization needs

22

which Psychologist proposed that human beings have five universal needs they seek to satisfy: physiological needs, safety needs, belongingness needs, esteem needs, and self-actualization needs.

Alderfer
Maslow
McClelland
Herzbergs

Abraham Maslow

23

which psychologist created the existence-relatedness-growth (ERG) theory?

Alderfer
Maslow
McClelland
Herzbergs

Clayton Alderfer

24

physiological and safety needs are the basic needs that don't need to be satisfied before an individual seeks to satisfy needs higher up in the hierarchy. t or f?

false, it has to be satisfied first before the other hierarchy of needs

25

which psychologist believes that as lower-level needs are satisfied, an employee becomes motivated to satisfy higher-level needs?

Maslow
Alderfer

Maslow and Alderfer

26

Maslow assumes that lower-level needs (basic needs) must be satisfied before a higher-level need is a motivator, which psychologist lifts this restriction?

Clayton Alderfer

27

which psychologist's theory builds on some of Maslow’s thinking but reduces the number of universal needs from five to three and is more flexible in terms of movement between levels?

Clayton Alderfer

28

_____ says that once a lower-level need is satisfied, it is no longer a source of motivation.

Maslow or Alderfer

Maslow

29

_____ proposes that when an individual is motivated to satisfy a higher-level need but has difficulty doing so, the person’s motivation to satisfy lower-level needs will increase.

Maslow or Alderfer

Alderfer

30

which is correct version of Alderfer's ERG theory?

needs for self-development and creative and productive work

Growth Needs
Relatedness Needs
Existence Needs

growth needs

31

which is correct version of Alderfer's ERG theory?

needs to have good interpersonal relations, to share thoughts and feelings, and to have open two way communication

Growth Needs
Relatedness Needs
Existence Needs

relatedness needs

32

which is correct version of Alderfer's ERG theory?

basic needs for human survival such as the need for food, water, clothing, shelter, and a secure and safe environment

Growth Needs
Relatedness Needs
Existence Needs

existence needs

33

the below is an example that satisfies which Alderfer's ERG theory need?

by continually improving skills and abilities and engaging in meaningful work

Growth Needs
Relatedness Needs
Existence Needs

growth needs

34

the below is an example that satisfies which Alderfer's ERG theory need?

by receiving enough pay to provide for the basic necessities of life and by having a safe working condition

Growth Needs
Relatedness Needs
Existence Needs

existence needs

35

the below is an example that satisfies which Alderfer's ERG theory need?

by having good relations with co workers, superiors, and subordinates and by obtaining accurate feedback from others.

Growth Needs
Relatedness Needs
Existence Needs

relatedness needs

36

which is Alderfer's ERG Theory or Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs?

three universal needs


Alderfer’s ERG Theory

37

which is Alderfer's ERG Theory or Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs?

flexible movement among levels

Alderfer’s ERG Theory

38

which is Alderfer's ERG Theory or Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs?

five universal needs

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

39

which is Alderfer's ERG Theory or Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs?

hierarchy of importance

Alderfer’s ERG Theory and Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

40

which is Alderfer's ERG Theory or Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs?

once satisfied, need no longer motivates

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

41

Which McClellan's learned needs is below?

Individuals with a high need for ______ have a special desire to perform challenging tasks well and to meet their own personal standards for excellence.

need for power
needs for achievement
need for affiliation

need for achievement

42

Which McClellan's learned needs is below?

Individuals with a high need for ______ are especially concerned about establishing and maintaining good relations with other people.

need for power
needs for achivement
need for affiliation

affiliation

43

Which McClellan's learned needs is below?

They like situations in which they are personally responsible for what happens, like to set clear goals for themselves, are willing to take personal responsibility for outcomes, and like to receive performance feedback. Entrepreneurs and managers are likely to have a high need for this.

need for power
needs for achivement
need for affiliation

need for achievement

44

Which McClellan's learned needs is below?


Individuals with a high need for _____ have a strong desire to exert emotional and behavioral control or influence over others

need for power
needs for achivement
need for affiliation

need for power

45

Which McClellan's learned needs is below?

They not only want to be liked by others but also want everyone to get along with everyone else. They like working in groups, tend to be sensitive to other people’s feelings, and avoid taking actions that would result in interpersonal conflict.

need for power
needs for achievement
need for affiliation

need for affiliation

46

Which McClellan's learned needs is below?

They tend to be found in managerial or leadership positions. House found that a president’s need for this predicted presidential performance.


need for power
needs for achievement
need for affiliation

need for power

47

Which McClellan's learned needs is below?

Individuals with a high need for _______ might be less effective in situations in which they need to evaluate others because it may be hard for them to give negative feedback.

need for power
needs for achivement
need for affiliation

affiliation

48

which theory focuses on the effects of certain types of job facets. Everyone has 2 sets of needs or requirements.

Motivator-Hygiene Theory of Motivation

49

who created the Motivator-Hygiene Theory of Motivation?

Alderfer
Maslow
McClelland
Herzberg

Herzberg

50

According to Herzberg, an employee can experience job satisfaction and dissatisfaction at the same time. t or f?

true:

An employee can be satisfied because motivator needs are being met by having challenging work, but be dissatisfied because hygiene needs are not being met.

51

Motivator or Hygiene needs are associated with the actual work itself and how challenging it is. The related job facets are interest level of work, autonomy, and responsibility.

motivator

52

Motivator or Hygiene needs are associated with the physical and psychological context in which the work is performed. The related job facets are physical working conditions, pay, and security.

Hygiene

53

Herzberg found that a low base salary or wage makes people dissatisfied and that paying more increase motivation and satisfaction. t or f?

false: Herzberg found that a low base salary or wage makes people dissatisfied, but that paying more does not necessarily satisfy or motivate them.

54

is the below a hygiene factor or a motivator factor of the Needs Theory of Motivation?

Sources of job dissatisfaction associated with job context.

Hygiene factors

55

is the below a hygiene factor or a motivator factor of the Needs Theory of Motivation?

Sources of job satisfaction related to job content.

motivator factors

56

is the below a hygiene factor or a motivator factor of the Needs Theory of Motivation?

Job dissatisfaction results when hygiene factors are poor.

Hygiene factors

57

is the below a hygiene factor or a motivator factor of the Needs Theory of Motivation?

Improving the hygiene factors only decreases job dissatisfaction.

Hygiene factors

58

is the below a hygiene factor or a motivator factor of the Needs Theory of Motivation?

Presence or absence of motivators is the key link to satisfaction.


motivator factors

59

Does the individual believe that his or her inputs will result in a given level of performance?


Need Theory
Expectancy Theory
Equity Theory
Organizational Justice Theory

yes; expectancy theory

60

Are outcomes perceived as being at an appropriate level in comparison to inputs?

Need Theory
Expectancy Theory
Equity Theory
Organizational Justice Theory

equity theory

61

From past experience or observation, employees will have a sense of what level of inputs should result in a certain level of outcomes


Need Theory
Expectancy Theory
Equity Theory
Organizational Justice Theory

equity theory

62

Employees will not be motivated to contribute their inputs to the organization unless they believe that their inputs will result in achieving a given level of performance, regardless of available outcomes


Need Theory
Expectancy Theory
Equity Theory
Organizational Justice Theory

expectancy theory

63

Does the individual believe that performance at this level will lead to obtaining desired outcomes?


Need Theory
Expectancy Theory
Equity Theory
Organizational Justice Theory

yes; expectancy theory

64

To motivate employees to contribute inputs that the organization needs, managers need to administer outcomes to employees based on their inputs. Additionally, managers must ensure that different employees’ outcome/input ratios are approximately equal so that employees who contribute more inputs receive more outcomes and vice versa.

Need Theory
Expectancy Theory
Equity Theory
Organizational Justice Theory

equity theory

65

Employees will be motivated to obtain given level of performance only if that level of performance leads to desired outcomes

Need Theory
Expectancy Theory
Equity Theory
Organizational Justice Theory

expectancy theory

66

Valence, Instrumentality, Expectancy are all major factors that determine an employee's motivation under which theory?


Need Theory
Expectancy Theory
Equity Theory
Organizational Justice Theory

expectancy theory

67

The Expectancy Theory was developed by ______ in the 1960s. It assumes that employees are motivated to receive positive outcomes and to avoid negative outcomes. It assumes that employees are rational processors of information and that they use information about their jobs, abilities, and desires to decide what they will do on the job and how hard they will do it.

Alderfer
Maslow
Vroom
Herzberg

Victor Vroom

68

which three factor(s) of expectancy theory can be positive or negative and vary in size or magnitude. They are measured on a scale of -1 to +1. An instrumentality of +1 means that an employee perceives that performance definitely will result in obtaining the outcome.

Valence
Instrumentality
Expectancy

Valence and Instrumentality

69

______ focuses on how employees decide which specific behaviors to perform and how much effort to exert.

Need Theory
Expectancy Theory
Equity Theory
Organizational Justice Theory

expectancy theory

70

which three factor(s) of expectancy theory varies from 0 to 1 and reflects the chances that putting forth a certain amount of effort will result in a certain level of performance. An expectancy of 1 signifies that an employee is absolutely certain that his or her effort will lead to a certain level of performance.

Valence
Instrumentality
Expectancy

expectancy

71

In order for an employee to be motivated to perform desired behaviors and to perform them at a high level, the 3 factors of the expectancy theory do not need to be at a high level.

false, the below must...
Valence must be high.
Instrumentality must be high.
Expectancy must be high.

if one of these factors is zero, than motivation will be zero

72

which theory is supported by empirical research?

Need Theory
Expectancy Theory
Equity Theory
Organizational Justice Theory

expectancy theory

73

who developed the Equity Theory?

Alderfer
Adams
Herzberg
Vroom

Adams

74

Employee’s perception of overall fairness in the organization

Need Theory
Expectancy Theory
Equity Theory
Organizational Justice Theory

organizational justice theory

75

which theory is based on the premise that an employee perceives the relationship between outcomes and inputs.

Need Theory
Expectancy Theory
Equity Theory
Organizational Justice Theory

equity theory

76

This theory contains three factors: Distributive, interpersonal, and procedural justice

Need Theory
Expectancy Theory
Equity Theory
Organizational Justice Theory

organizational justice

77

According to this theory, it is not the objective level of outcomes and inputs that is important in determining work motivation. What is important to motivation is the way an employee perceives his or her outcome/input ratio compared to the outcome/input ratio of another person.

Need Theory
Expectancy Theory
Equity Theory
Organizational Justice Theory

equity theory

78

Objective level of outcomes does not determine work motivation. t or f?

true

79

Outcome/input ratio compared to ratio of referent others leads to work motivation. t or f?

true

80

A ______ is another employee or group of employees perceived to be similar to oneself. They can also be oneself at a different place of time or it could be one’s expectations.

referent

81

Equity exists when an individual’s outcome/input ratio equals the outcome/input ratio of the referent. t or f?

true

82

Overpayment inequity or Underpayment inequity exists when an individual perceives that his or her outcome/input ratio is greater than that of a referent.

overpayment inequity

83

Overpayment inequity or Underpayment inequity exists when a person perceives that his or her outcome/input ratio is less than that of a referent.

underpayment inequity

84

perceived fairness of the interactions among organizational members.

distributive
interpersonal
procedural justice

interpersonal

85

perceived fairness in the allocation of organizational resources.

distributive
interpersonal
procedural justice

distributive

86

Perceived fairness of the procedures used to make decisions about the distribution of outcomes; Not the actual distribution of outcomes

distributive
interpersonal
procedural justice

procedural justice

87

Higher motivation occurs when procedures used to make decisions are perceived as fair

distributive
interpersonal
procedural justice

procedural justice