Flashcards in Antimicrobials Deck (65):
A bactericidal drug often interferes with ____ or ____ synthesis.
1. Cell wall
2. Nucleic acid
A bacteriostatic drug often interferes with ____ and ____.
1. Protein synthesis
Which drugs are bacteriostatic?
Which drugs are bactericidal?
What are 2 conditions in which you would want to use a drug that is bactericidal over one that is bacteriostatic?
1. Immunosuppressed patient
2. Life-threatening infection
Lowest concentration of an AB that will inhibit growth of a microorganism after incubation with it.
MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration)
Residual effect of antibiotics after concentrations have gone below MIC.
Post-antibiotic effect (PAE)
Which will have more of a post-antibiotic effect, time-dependent antibiotics or concentration-dependent antibiotics?
Which is consistent with a time-dependent drug: (1) giving multiple doses daily or (2) giving a single high dose / day?
(1) giving multiple doses daily
Which is consistent with a concentration-dependent drug: (1) giving multiple doses daily or (2) giving a single high dose / day?
(2) giving a single high dose / day
Which drugs are time-dependent?
Which drugs are concentration-dependent?
Are beta-lactams bactericidal or bacteriostatic?
Are beta-lactams time-dependent or concentration-dependent?
What is the MOA of beta-lactams?
Block cell wall synthesis
Will concentration of a beta-lactam be higher in the urine or in the serum?
How are beta-lactams excreted?
Via urinary system
Penicillins have excellent efficacy against gram ____ and ____.
1. Gram (+)
What makes up Clavamox (2 components)?
2. Clavulanic acid
What makes up Unasyn (2 components)?
Which generation of cephalosporin is Cefoxitin?
Which generation of cephalosporin is Cefepime?
Which generation of cephalosporin is cephalexin?
Which generation of cephalosporin is cefpodoxime?
Which generation of cephalosporin is cefovecin (convenia)?
Going from 1st generation cephalosporins to 4th generation cephalosporins, there is increasing action against what type of bacteria?
What are the ONLY beta-lactams that have post-antibiotic effects?
True or False: Carbapenems can be administered orally, IV, and SC.
FALSE - Carbapenems cannot be administered orally.
What is most widely used Glycopeptide?
Is vancomycin bactericidal or bacteriostatic?
What is the MOA of vancomycin?
Inhibits cell wall synthesis
Is vancomycin time-dependent or concentration-dependent?
Are FQ bactericidal or bacteriostatic?
Are FQ time or concentration-dependent?
What is the MOA of FQ?
Disruption of DNA synthesis
Are FQ most effective against gram (+) or gram (-) bacteria?
True or False: FQs have good efficacy against anaerobes.
FQs are highly lipophilic, allow for excellent penetration of ____ and ____ infections.
In which 2 animals should the use of FQs be avoided?
2. Young animals
Why should FQs be avoided in cats?
Why should FQs be avoided in young animals (less than 7 months)?
Which of the following interferes with cytochrome P450 activity, Cephalosporins, Beta-lactams, or FQs?
Sulfonamides and Trimethoprim both inhibit what?
Trimethoprim, unlike the sulfonamides, inhibits what?
The sulfonamides, unlike Trimethoprim, are competitive inhibitors of what?
What are the adverse effects associated with Sulfonamides?
3. Bone marrow suppression
5. Immune-mediated thrombocytopenia
What 3 tests would you want to run to monitor side effects associated with sulfonamides?
2. Shirmer tear test
3. Liver panel
What is amikacin?
Name 3 other aminoglycosides.
What are 2 adverse effects associated with aminoglycosides?
What is the mechanism of chloramphenicol?
Inhibition of protein synthesis by binding to 50s
Is chloramphenicol bactericidal or bacteriostatic?
What adverse effects are associated with chloramphenicol use in cats and dogs?
Bone marrow suppression (REVERSIBLE)
What is the MOA of tetracyclines?
Inhibition of protein synthesis by binding 30s
What are the adverse effects of tetracyclines?
2. Esophageal strictures (cats)
4. Dental discoloration
True or False: Dental discoloration has been reported with all tetracyclines.
FALSE - dental discoloration is NOT well reported with Doxycycline.
What type of AB is Clindamycin?
What is the MOA of Lincosamides?
Inhibition of protein synthesis by binding 50s
Lincosamides will achieve high concentrations in what?
What is the spectrum of Lincosamides like Clindamycin?
Protozoans (Toxoplasma, Neospora)
What is azithromycin?
Name 2 other Macrolides.
What is the MOA of the Macrolides?
Inhibit protein synthesis by binding 50s
The Macrolides achieve high concentration in what?