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Flashcards in Antimicrobials Deck (65):
1

A bactericidal drug often interferes with ____ or ____ synthesis.

1. Cell wall

2. Nucleic acid

2

A bacteriostatic drug often interferes with ____ and ____.

1. Protein synthesis

2. Metabolism

3

Which drugs are bacteriostatic?

"SulfTetMacChlor"

1. Chloramphenicol

2. Sulfanomides

3. Trimethoprim

4. Clindamycin

5. Doxycycline

6. Macrolides

4

Which drugs are bactericidal?

"BANF"

1. Beta-lactams

2. FQ

3. Aminoglycosies

4. TMS

5. Vancomycin

6. Metronidazole

5

What are 2 conditions in which you would want to use a drug that is bactericidal over one that is bacteriostatic?

1. Immunosuppressed patient

2. Life-threatening infection

6

Lowest concentration of an AB that will inhibit growth of a microorganism after incubation with it.

MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration)

7

Residual effect of antibiotics after concentrations have gone below MIC.

Post-antibiotic effect (PAE)

8

Which will have more of a post-antibiotic effect, time-dependent antibiotics or concentration-dependent antibiotics?

Concentration-dependent antibiotics

9

Which is consistent with a time-dependent drug: (1) giving multiple doses daily or (2) giving a single high dose / day?

(1) giving multiple doses daily

10

Which is consistent with a concentration-dependent drug: (1) giving multiple doses daily or (2) giving a single high dose / day?

(2) giving a single high dose / day

11

Which drugs are time-dependent?

1. Penicillins

2. Cephalosporins

3. Carbapenems

4. Macrolides

5. Lincosamides

6. Tetracyclines

12

Which drugs are concentration-dependent?

1. Aminoglycosides

2. FQ

3. Metronidazole

13

Are beta-lactams bactericidal or bacteriostatic?

Bactericidal

14

Are beta-lactams time-dependent or concentration-dependent?

Time-dependent

15

What is the MOA of beta-lactams?

Block cell wall synthesis

16

Will concentration of a beta-lactam be higher in the urine or in the serum?

Urine

17

How are beta-lactams excreted?

Via urinary system

18

Penicillins have excellent efficacy against gram ____ and ____.

1. Gram (+)

2. Anaerobes

19

What makes up Clavamox (2 components)?

1. Amoxicillin

2. Clavulanic acid

20

What makes up Unasyn (2 components)?

1. Ampicillin

2. Sulbactam

21

Which generation of cephalosporin is Cefoxitin?

2nd

22

Which generation of cephalosporin is Cefepime?

4th

23

Which generation of cephalosporin is cephalexin?

1st

24

Which generation of cephalosporin is cefpodoxime?

3rd

25

Which generation of cephalosporin is cefovecin (convenia)?

3rd

26

Going from 1st generation cephalosporins to 4th generation cephalosporins, there is increasing action against what type of bacteria?

Gram (-)

27

What are the ONLY beta-lactams that have post-antibiotic effects?

Carbapenems

28

True or False: Carbapenems can be administered orally, IV, and SC.

FALSE - Carbapenems cannot be administered orally.

29

What is most widely used Glycopeptide?

Vancomycin

30

Is vancomycin bactericidal or bacteriostatic?

Bactericidal

31

What is the MOA of vancomycin?

Inhibits cell wall synthesis

32

Is vancomycin time-dependent or concentration-dependent?

Time-dependent

33

Are FQ bactericidal or bacteriostatic?

Bactericidal

34

Are FQ time or concentration-dependent?

Concentration-dependent

35

What is the MOA of FQ?

Disruption of DNA synthesis

36

Are FQ most effective against gram (+) or gram (-) bacteria?

Gram (-)

37

True or False: FQs have good efficacy against anaerobes.

FALSE

38

FQs are highly lipophilic, allow for excellent penetration of ____ and ____ infections.

1. Prostatic

2. Respiratory

39

In which 2 animals should the use of FQs be avoided?

1. Cats

2. Young animals

40

Why should FQs be avoided in cats?

Retinal degeneration

41

Why should FQs be avoided in young animals (less than 7 months)?

Cartilage/joint toxicity

42

Which of the following interferes with cytochrome P450 activity, Cephalosporins, Beta-lactams, or FQs?

FQs

43

Sulfonamides and Trimethoprim both inhibit what?

Folate metabolism

44

Trimethoprim, unlike the sulfonamides, inhibits what?

Dihydrofolate reductase

45

The sulfonamides, unlike Trimethoprim, are competitive inhibitors of what?

Pteridin synthase

46

What are the adverse effects associated with Sulfonamides?

1. KCS

2. Hepatotoxicity

3. Bone marrow suppression

4. Polyarthritis

5. Immune-mediated thrombocytopenia

47

What 3 tests would you want to run to monitor side effects associated with sulfonamides?

1. CBC

2. Shirmer tear test

3. Liver panel

48

What is amikacin?

Aminoglycoside

49

Name 3 other aminoglycosides.

1. Gentamicin

2. Tobramycin

3. Neomycin

50

What are 2 adverse effects associated with aminoglycosides?

1. Nephrotoxicity

2. Ototoxicity

51

What is the mechanism of chloramphenicol?

Inhibition of protein synthesis by binding to 50s

52

Is chloramphenicol bactericidal or bacteriostatic?

Bacteriostatic

53

What adverse effects are associated with chloramphenicol use in cats and dogs?

Bone marrow suppression (REVERSIBLE)

54

What is the MOA of tetracyclines?

Inhibition of protein synthesis by binding 30s

55

What are the adverse effects of tetracyclines?

1. Vomiting

2. Esophageal strictures (cats)

3. Hepatopathy

4. Dental discoloration

56

True or False: Dental discoloration has been reported with all tetracyclines.

FALSE - dental discoloration is NOT well reported with Doxycycline.

57

What type of AB is Clindamycin?

Lincosamide

58

What is the MOA of Lincosamides?

Inhibition of protein synthesis by binding 50s

59

Lincosamides will achieve high concentrations in what?

Leukocytes

60

What is the spectrum of Lincosamides like Clindamycin?

Gram (+)

Anaerobes

Protozoans (Toxoplasma, Neospora)

61

What is azithromycin?

Macrolide

62

Name 2 other Macrolides.

1. Clarithromycin

2. Tylosin

63

What is the MOA of the Macrolides?

Inhibit protein synthesis by binding 50s

64

The Macrolides achieve high concentration in what?

Tissues

65

What is the spectrum of the Macrolides?

Gram (+) / some gram (-)

Mycobacterium