Diabetes Mellitus Flashcards Preview

Small Animal Internal Medicine > Diabetes Mellitus > Flashcards

Flashcards in Diabetes Mellitus Deck (37):
1

What 3 changes would you see on a biochem panel with DM?

1. Hyperglycemia

2. Hypercholesterolemia

3. Hypertriglyceridemia

2

What changes would you see in the urine with DM?

Glucosuria (which falsely increases the USG 0.008-0.010)

3

___% of dogs with DM had bacterial UTIs.

24%

4

True or False: DM is dogs is dependent on insulin.

TRUE

5

What are the 2 Neutral Protamine Hagedorn (NPH) products?

1. Humulin-N

2. Novolin-N

6

The NPH insulin class is _____ - acting.

Intermediate acting

7

What is the name of the Lente Insulin product?

Vetsulin

8

Lente Insulin is a combination of 30% short-acting ____ and 70% long-acting ____ insulin.

Lente Insulin is a combination of 30% short-acting AMORPHOUS and 70% long-acting CRYSTALLINE insulin.

9

Lente insulin is derived from where?

Porcine

10

True or False: Vetsulin is not FDA approved yet for use in dogs and cats.

FALSE - FDA approved

11

Protamine Zinc Insulin has more ____ than NPH, resulting in a prolonged duration.

Protamine

12

What is the name of the Protamine Zinc Insulin product?

ProZinc

13

True or False: ProZinc is approved for use in dogs and cats.

FALSE - FDA approved for use in cats.

14

What is the name of the glargine product available?

Lantus

15

What is the name of the detemir product available?

Levemir

16

What dose of insulin would you use to initiate therapy in a diabetic dog?

0.25 - 0.5 U/kg SC q. 12 hr.

17

Which 2 insulins would you choose from to initiate insulin therapy in a dog?

1. NPH

2. Lente

18

What dose of insulin would you use to initiate therapy in a diabetic cat?

1 U/kg SC q. 12 hr.

19

What 3 insulins would be your first choice in initiating insulin therapy in a cat?

1. PZI

2. Lente

3. Glargine

20

What is the name of the oral hypoglycemic drug available for use in diabetic cats?

Glipizide

21

Glipizide is successful in only ____% of cats.

33%

22

In the diabetic cat, a ___-protein, ___-carbohydrate diet is ideal.

HIGH protein

LOW carbohydrate

23

True or False: Meal feeding at the time of insulin administration is NOT essential in the diabetic cat.

TRUE

24

True or False: In diabetes, remission is equivalent to a cure.

FALSE

25

Remission in diabetic cats usually occurs within the first ___ months of treatment.

3 months

26

Why do ketone bodies develop?

In states of glucose deficiency, ketone bodies can be used as an energy source.

27

As ketone bodies increase in the vascular space, they exceed the renal threshold. What does this cause?

Osmotic diuresis

28

Urine dipsticks measure what 2 ketones?

1. Acetoacetic acid

2. Acetone

29

Which ketone is not measured by a urine dipstick?

Beta-hydroxybutyrate

30

____ + ____ = diabetic ketoacidosis

Ketosis + metabolic acidosis

31

With diabetic ketoacidosis, what changes would you expect on a CBC?

1. Non-regenerative anemia

2. Inflammatory leukogram

3. Hemoconcentration (due to dehydration)

32

With diabetic ketoacidosis, what changes would you expect on biochem profile?

1. Hyperglycemia

2. Hypercholesterolemia

3. Hypertriglyceridemia

4. Azotemia

5. High anion gap

33

With diabetic ketoacidosis, what changes would you expect on a urinalysis?

1. Glucosuria

2. Ketonuria

3. Bacteriuria

34

Dextrose can be supplemented as needed to keep blood glucose between ____ and ____ mg/dL.

100 and 250 mg/dL

35

With DKA, you may need to supplement phosphorous. Phosphorous < ____ mg/dL can can hemolysis.

< 1.5 mg/dL

36

Serum potassium may increase or decrease following insulin therapy?

Decrease

37

What are your 2 fluid choices for re-hydrating a DKA patient?

1. 0.9% NaCl

2. Buffered crystalloid solution (Plasmalyte A, LRS)