Flashcards in Toxoplasma/Neospora Deck (58):
What is the causative against of Toxoplasma?
What is the definitive host of Toxoplasma?
Cats and other felidae
What are the intermediate hosts of Toxoplasma?
Warm blooded animals (mice and rats)
In which species does the enteroepithelial cycle occur, cats or other mammals?
In which species does the extraintestinal cycle occur, cats or other mammals?
In the enteroepithelial cycle of Toxoplasma in the cat, there is ingestion of what life stage?
The bradyzoites are released into the GI tract, localize to the GI epithelium, and differentiate into what?
The joining of micro and macrogamonts produces what life stage?
What life stage of Toxoplasma is passed in the feces of cats?
Toxoplasma oocytes are passed in the feces and become infective within ___ days.
With the extraintestinal cycle of Toxoplasma that occurs in all other mammals, what life stage is ingested?
The oocysts that are ingested release what in the GI tract?
The Toxoplasma sporozoites penetrate the GI epithelium and transform into what?
Which 3 life stages of Toxoplasma are infectious?
True or False: Toxoplasma gondii can be transmitted via lactation.
TRUE - there is a high concentration of organisms in the mammary glands.
Cats infected with Toxoplasma gondii do NOT shed the organism for life. When will shedding occur and for how long?
Shedding can begin 1-5 days after infection and continue for about 2-3 weeks.
What is the most common route of infection for Toxoplasmosis in people?
Ingestion of infected tissue
What are 2 risk factors for Toxoplasmosis in cats?
1. Rural environment
2. Old age
True or False: There are no clinical signs associated with intestinal toxoplasmosis.
TRUE (other than possibly self-limiting small bowel diarrhea <2 weeks duration)
True or False: In young cats, disseminated toxoplasmosis is highly fatal.
TRUE - high mortality in young cats.
What 2 organs are affected in young cats with disseminated toxoplasmosis?
With toxoplasmosis, what would your liver values look like?
With toxoplasmosis, what would your CK value look like?
Dramatically increased CK (in the thousands)
True or False: A fecal flotation test detects oocysts and can be used to diagnose disseminated toxoplasmosis.
FALSE - one cannot differentiate Toxoplasma from Neospora, Besnoitia, or Hammondia.
True or False: Fecal shedding can be consistent with a disseminated toxoplasma infection.
FALSE - dissemination tends to occur AFTER fecal shedding ceases.
The presence of ____ in a CSF or aqueous humor cytology is diagnostic for Disseminated Toxoplasmosis.
To diagnose Disseminated Toxoplasmosis, one can perform serology on either ____ or ____.
If serum serology is positive for Toxoplasma, the cat has been infected for how long?
> 2 weeks
With toxoplasmosis, which antibody titer will increase in the body first?
How long after infection with Toxoplasma will IgM titers appear increased?
2 weeks later
Which is consistent with an acute toxoplasma infection, IgM or IgG?
Which is consistent with chronic exposure to Toxoplasma, IgM or IgG?
A 4-fold increase in IgG levels over 2-3 weeks is consistent with what type of Toxoplasma infection?
An acute infection
What are 2 antimicrobials used against Toxoplasma?
True or False: Antimicrobial treatment of Toxoplasmosis will clear the infection from the body.
FALSE - antimicrobials do not eliminate the organism, only active replication. Bradyzoites will persist for life.
Is Toxoplasma zoonotic?
What is the causative agent of Neospora?
What is the definitive host of Neospora caninum?
Dogs and wild canids
What are the intermediate hosts of Neospora caninum?
Cows, goats, sheep, deer...
What 2 ways is Neospora transmitted in the dog?
2. Ingestion of infected meat/tissue
The reproductive manifestation of Neospora is usually present when during gestation?
With the reproductive manifestation of Neospora, up to ___% of puppies can be infected.
____ and ____ are complications seen with reproductive manifestations of Neospora.
True or False: Neospora is a leading cause of abortion and infertility in dogs worldwide.
FALSE - in CATTLE it is a leading cause of abortion and infertility.
In puppies infected with Neospora transplacentally, when will clinical signs show up?
4-6 months after birth
What are the 4 clinical manifestation of adult onset Neospora?
4. Nodular dermatitis
How would Neospora affect CK values?
How would Neospora affect ALT levels?
Nodular dermatitis of Neospora is usually associated with what type of inflammation?
True or False: You can utilize CSF cytology to differentiate Neospora from Toxoplasma.
FALSE - only PCR can do that.
Fecal flotation cannot distinguish Neospora from Toxoplasma, Besnoitia, or Hammondia. After ingestion, when will dogs shed Neospora oocyts?
5 days after ingestion
How long is shedding period for Neospora in the dog (definitive host)?
5 - 13 days
True or False: PCR allows distinction between Toxoplasma and Neospora.
True or False: PCR can be used alone in the diagnosis of Neospora.
FALSE - PCR is not adequate when used alone. 1/3 of healthy dogs will come up positive.
What are the 3 medication options available to treat Neospora?
Can Clindamycin or TMS clear Neospora from the body?
No, treatment will suppress replication, but bradyzoites will persist.
What is the prognosis for puppies with muscle contracture associated with a Neospora infection?
Poor - muscular contracture is irreversible and often an end-stage development.