Toxoplasma/Neospora Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Toxoplasma/Neospora Deck (58):
1

What is the causative against of Toxoplasma?

Toxoplasma gondii

2

What is the definitive host of Toxoplasma?

Cats and other felidae

3

What are the intermediate hosts of Toxoplasma?

Warm blooded animals (mice and rats)

4

In which species does the enteroepithelial cycle occur, cats or other mammals?

Cats

5

In which species does the extraintestinal cycle occur, cats or other mammals?

Other mammals

6

In the enteroepithelial cycle of Toxoplasma in the cat, there is ingestion of what life stage?

Bradyzoite

7

The bradyzoites are released into the GI tract, localize to the GI epithelium, and differentiate into what?

Micro/macrogamonts

8

The joining of micro and macrogamonts produces what life stage?

Oocysts

9

What life stage of Toxoplasma is passed in the feces of cats?

Oocysts

10

Toxoplasma oocytes are passed in the feces and become infective within ___ days.

1-5 days

11

With the extraintestinal cycle of Toxoplasma that occurs in all other mammals, what life stage is ingested?

Oocyst

12

The oocysts that are ingested release what in the GI tract?

Sporozoites

13

The Toxoplasma sporozoites penetrate the GI epithelium and transform into what?

Tachyzoites

14

Which 3 life stages of Toxoplasma are infectious?

1. Sporozoite

2. Bradyzoite

3. Tachyzoite

15

True or False: Toxoplasma gondii can be transmitted via lactation.

TRUE - there is a high concentration of organisms in the mammary glands.

16

Cats infected with Toxoplasma gondii do NOT shed the organism for life. When will shedding occur and for how long?

Shedding can begin 1-5 days after infection and continue for about 2-3 weeks.

17

What is the most common route of infection for Toxoplasmosis in people?

Ingestion of infected tissue

18

What are 2 risk factors for Toxoplasmosis in cats?

1. Rural environment

2. Old age

19

True or False: There are no clinical signs associated with intestinal toxoplasmosis.

TRUE (other than possibly self-limiting small bowel diarrhea <2 weeks duration)

20

True or False: In young cats, disseminated toxoplasmosis is highly fatal.

TRUE - high mortality in young cats.

21

What 2 organs are affected in young cats with disseminated toxoplasmosis?

1. Liver

2. Lungs

22

With toxoplasmosis, what would your liver values look like?

Increased ALP

Increased ALT

Increased bilirubin

23

With toxoplasmosis, what would your CK value look like?

Dramatically increased CK (in the thousands)

24

True or False: A fecal flotation test detects oocysts and can be used to diagnose disseminated toxoplasmosis.

FALSE - one cannot differentiate Toxoplasma from Neospora, Besnoitia, or Hammondia.

25

True or False: Fecal shedding can be consistent with a disseminated toxoplasma infection.

FALSE - dissemination tends to occur AFTER fecal shedding ceases.

26

The presence of ____ in a CSF or aqueous humor cytology is diagnostic for Disseminated Toxoplasmosis.

Tachyzoites

27

To diagnose Disseminated Toxoplasmosis, one can perform serology on either ____ or ____.

1. Serum

2. CSF

28

If serum serology is positive for Toxoplasma, the cat has been infected for how long?

> 2 weeks

29

With toxoplasmosis, which antibody titer will increase in the body first?

IgM

30

How long after infection with Toxoplasma will IgM titers appear increased?

2 weeks later

31

Which is consistent with an acute toxoplasma infection, IgM or IgG?

IgM

32

Which is consistent with chronic exposure to Toxoplasma, IgM or IgG?

IgG

33

A 4-fold increase in IgG levels over 2-3 weeks is consistent with what type of Toxoplasma infection?

An acute infection

34

What are 2 antimicrobials used against Toxoplasma?

1. Clindamycin

2. TMS

35

True or False: Antimicrobial treatment of Toxoplasmosis will clear the infection from the body.

FALSE - antimicrobials do not eliminate the organism, only active replication. Bradyzoites will persist for life.

36

Is Toxoplasma zoonotic?

Yes

37

What is the causative agent of Neospora?

Neospora caninum

38

What is the definitive host of Neospora caninum?

Dogs and wild canids

39

What are the intermediate hosts of Neospora caninum?

Cows, goats, sheep, deer...

40

What 2 ways is Neospora transmitted in the dog?

1. Transplacental

2. Ingestion of infected meat/tissue

41

The reproductive manifestation of Neospora is usually present when during gestation?

Late gestation

42

With the reproductive manifestation of Neospora, up to ___% of puppies can be infected.

50%

43

____ and ____ are complications seen with reproductive manifestations of Neospora.

1. Abortion

2. Mummification

44

True or False: Neospora is a leading cause of abortion and infertility in dogs worldwide.

FALSE - in CATTLE it is a leading cause of abortion and infertility.

45

In puppies infected with Neospora transplacentally, when will clinical signs show up?

4-6 months after birth

46

What are the 4 clinical manifestation of adult onset Neospora?

1. Polymyositis

2. Meningoencephalomyelitis

3. Myocarditis

4. Nodular dermatitis

47

How would Neospora affect CK values?

Increased CK

48

How would Neospora affect ALT levels?

Increased ALT

49

Nodular dermatitis of Neospora is usually associated with what type of inflammation?

Pyogranulomatous inflammation

50

True or False: You can utilize CSF cytology to differentiate Neospora from Toxoplasma.

FALSE - only PCR can do that.

51

Fecal flotation cannot distinguish Neospora from Toxoplasma, Besnoitia, or Hammondia. After ingestion, when will dogs shed Neospora oocyts?

5 days after ingestion

52

How long is shedding period for Neospora in the dog (definitive host)?

5 - 13 days

53

True or False: PCR allows distinction between Toxoplasma and Neospora.

TRUE

54

True or False: PCR can be used alone in the diagnosis of Neospora.

FALSE - PCR is not adequate when used alone. 1/3 of healthy dogs will come up positive.

55

What are the 3 medication options available to treat Neospora?

1. Clindamycin

2. TMS

3. Pyrimethamine

56

Can Clindamycin or TMS clear Neospora from the body?

No, treatment will suppress replication, but bradyzoites will persist.

57

What is the prognosis for puppies with muscle contracture associated with a Neospora infection?

Poor - muscular contracture is irreversible and often an end-stage development.

58

Is there a vaccine available for Neospora?

Yes