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Flashcards in Glucose 1 Deck (49):
1

What is the sole source of energy for the brain?

Glucose

2

What is the range of a normal blood glucose?

70 - 120 mg/dl

3

What are the 3 sources of glucose?

1. Gluconeogenesis

2. Glycogenolysis

3. Intestinal absorption

4

Describe intestinal absorption of glucose...

1. Carbohydrates are broken down to monosaccharides by duodenal brush-border enzymes

2. Glucose is activity transported across the brush border by Na-dependent carrier

3. Glucose enters the portal circulation

4. Glucose is transported to the liver

5

Post-prandially, how many hours will glucose provide fuel for cellular metabolism?

4 - 8 hours

6

When in a fasted state, normoglycemia is maintained with what sources?

Endogenous glucose sources

7

What are the 2 endogenous glucose sources?

1. Gluconeogenesis

2. Glycogenolysis

8

Gluconeogenesis is the formation of glucose from precursors: name 3.

1. Amino acids

2. Lactate

3. Glycerol

9

In which 2 organs does gluconeogenesis occur?

1. Liver

2. Kidney

10

Why is hepatic function important to maintaining normoglycemia?

1. Primary site of gluconeogenesis

2. Site of glycogen storage

11

Insulin increases or decreases cellular uptake of glucose?

Increases

12

Insulin stimulates or inhibits lipolysis?

Inhibits

13

What is insulin's effect on gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis?

Inhibition

14

What 4 hormones are released in response to hypoglycemia?

1. Glucagon

2. GH

3. Adrenaline

4. Cortisol

15

What are the 4 net effects of the diabetogenic hormones?

1. Promote glycogenolysis

2. Promote gluconeogenesis

3. Shut down insulin secretion

4. Decrease peripheral glucose use

16

What is the endogenous source of glucagon?

Pancreatic alpha cells

17

What is the endogenous source of insulin?

Pancreatic beta cells

18

What is the effect of the diabetogenic hormones on blood glucose?

Increases BG

19

What are the possible causes of hypoglycemia?

1. Lack of intestinal absorption

2. Lack of hepatic production

3. Endocrine disorder (addison's, insulinoma)

4. Increased glucose utilization (sepsis, polycythemia)

20

What is the first portion of the brain affected by hypoglycemia?

Cerebral cortex

21

What is the first ORGAN affected by hypoglycemia?

Brain

22

What are 2 causes for a MILD (>45 mg/dL) hypoglycemia?

1. Addison's

2. Hepatic disease

23

What are 3 causes for SEVERE (<40 mg/dL) hypoglycemia?

1. Sepsis

2. Neoplasia

3. Juvenile

24

What is an insulinoma?

Tumor of the pancreatic beta-cells

25

Would you expect hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia with an insulinoma? Why?

Hypoglycemia: Insulinoma's secrete insulin

26

Are most insulinomas benign or malignant?

Malignant

27

What finding would be diagnostic of an insulinoma?

High insulin with concurrent low blood glucose

28

What are the 3 general causes of hyperglycemia?

1. Post-prandial

2. Excess hormones that raise BG

3. Deficit in hormones that decrease BG

29

What is the therapy for hyperglycemia?

Insulin

30

Therapy for hyperglycemia (insulin) is usually only indicated for what condition?

Acromegaly

31

What is the renal threshold for blood glucose in the dog?

180 mg/dL

32

What is the renal threshold for blood glucose in the cat?

280 mg/dL

33

What pancreatic cells produce insulin?

Beta

34

What pancreatic cells produce glucagon?

Alpha

35

What pancreatic cells produce somatostatin?

Gamma

36

What is the result of insulin deficiency?

Hyperglycemia

37

Explain how polyuria and polydipsia develop in a diabetic patient...

1. Hyperglycemia

2. Blood glucose levels exceed renal threshold

3. Glucosuria

4. Osmotic diuresis

5. Polyuria

6. Compensatory polydipsia

38

Explain how polyphagia develops in a diabetic patient...

1. Insulin deficiency

2. Glucose does not enter the satiety center

3. Failure to inhibit feeding center

4. Polyphagia

39

What are the 4 classical signs of diabetes mellitus?

1. PU

2. PD

3. PP

4. Weight loss

40

What is the most common endocrine disease in dogs and cats?

Diabetes mellitus

41

What would be a common signalment of a dog most likely to develop diabetes?

Female

7 - 10 years old

Samoyed, Keeshond

42

What would be a common signalment of a cat most likely to develop diabetes?

Neutered male

> 6 years of age

Australian, Burmese

43

Which type of DM is most common in dogs?

Type I

44

Which type of DM is most common in cats?

Type II

45

Which type of DM is insulin-dependent?

Type I

46

Which type of DM is non-insulin dependent?

Type II

47

Which type of DM is due to genetic predispositions?

Type I

48

Which type of DM is due to defective pancreatic beta cells?

Type II

49

How would you diagnose diabetes mellitus? Name 3 findings that would support a diagnosis.

1. Resting hyperglycemia

2. Glucosuria

3. Clinical signs