Flashcards in Glucose 1 Deck (49):
What is the sole source of energy for the brain?
What is the range of a normal blood glucose?
70 - 120 mg/dl
What are the 3 sources of glucose?
3. Intestinal absorption
Describe intestinal absorption of glucose...
1. Carbohydrates are broken down to monosaccharides by duodenal brush-border enzymes
2. Glucose is activity transported across the brush border by Na-dependent carrier
3. Glucose enters the portal circulation
4. Glucose is transported to the liver
Post-prandially, how many hours will glucose provide fuel for cellular metabolism?
4 - 8 hours
When in a fasted state, normoglycemia is maintained with what sources?
Endogenous glucose sources
What are the 2 endogenous glucose sources?
Gluconeogenesis is the formation of glucose from precursors: name 3.
1. Amino acids
In which 2 organs does gluconeogenesis occur?
Why is hepatic function important to maintaining normoglycemia?
1. Primary site of gluconeogenesis
2. Site of glycogen storage
Insulin increases or decreases cellular uptake of glucose?
Insulin stimulates or inhibits lipolysis?
What is insulin's effect on gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis?
What 4 hormones are released in response to hypoglycemia?
What are the 4 net effects of the diabetogenic hormones?
1. Promote glycogenolysis
2. Promote gluconeogenesis
3. Shut down insulin secretion
4. Decrease peripheral glucose use
What is the endogenous source of glucagon?
Pancreatic alpha cells
What is the endogenous source of insulin?
Pancreatic beta cells
What is the effect of the diabetogenic hormones on blood glucose?
What are the possible causes of hypoglycemia?
1. Lack of intestinal absorption
2. Lack of hepatic production
3. Endocrine disorder (addison's, insulinoma)
4. Increased glucose utilization (sepsis, polycythemia)
What is the first portion of the brain affected by hypoglycemia?
What is the first ORGAN affected by hypoglycemia?
What are 2 causes for a MILD (>45 mg/dL) hypoglycemia?
2. Hepatic disease
What are 3 causes for SEVERE (<40 mg/dL) hypoglycemia?
What is an insulinoma?
Tumor of the pancreatic beta-cells
Would you expect hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia with an insulinoma? Why?
Hypoglycemia: Insulinoma's secrete insulin
Are most insulinomas benign or malignant?
What finding would be diagnostic of an insulinoma?
High insulin with concurrent low blood glucose
What are the 3 general causes of hyperglycemia?
2. Excess hormones that raise BG
3. Deficit in hormones that decrease BG
What is the therapy for hyperglycemia?
Therapy for hyperglycemia (insulin) is usually only indicated for what condition?
What is the renal threshold for blood glucose in the dog?
What is the renal threshold for blood glucose in the cat?
What pancreatic cells produce insulin?
What pancreatic cells produce glucagon?
What pancreatic cells produce somatostatin?
What is the result of insulin deficiency?
Explain how polyuria and polydipsia develop in a diabetic patient...
2. Blood glucose levels exceed renal threshold
4. Osmotic diuresis
6. Compensatory polydipsia
Explain how polyphagia develops in a diabetic patient...
1. Insulin deficiency
2. Glucose does not enter the satiety center
3. Failure to inhibit feeding center
What are the 4 classical signs of diabetes mellitus?
4. Weight loss
What is the most common endocrine disease in dogs and cats?
What would be a common signalment of a dog most likely to develop diabetes?
7 - 10 years old
What would be a common signalment of a cat most likely to develop diabetes?
> 6 years of age
Which type of DM is most common in dogs?
Which type of DM is most common in cats?
Which type of DM is insulin-dependent?
Which type of DM is non-insulin dependent?
Which type of DM is due to genetic predispositions?
Which type of DM is due to defective pancreatic beta cells?