Antimycobacterials Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology > Antimycobacterials > Flashcards

Flashcards in Antimycobacterials Deck (25):
1

first line drug for treatment of TB

RIPE
Rifamycins (Rifampin and Rifabutin)
Isoniazid
Pyrazinamide
Ethambutol

2

second line drug for treatment of TB

SALE
Streptomycin
Amikacin
Levofloxacin
Ethionamide

3

used for treatment of C. difficile

Fidoxomicin
Metronidazole
Vancomycin

4

drug regimen for latent TB and duration one should take the drug

Isoniazid for 6-9 months
Rifampin for 4 months

5

mechanism of isoniazid

is a pyridoxine (vit B6) analogue that targets mycolic acid synthesis enzymes, enoyl acyl carrier protein reductase (AcpM) and b-ketoacyl-ACP synthase

6

what activates isoniazid

mycobacterial catalase peroxidase

7

pharmacokinetics of isoniazid

one can be a fast acetylator or a slow acetylator of the drug and fast acetylators required higher doses

8

adverse effects of isoniazid

Lupus like syndrome
CYP450 inhibitor
Hepatotoxicity

9

can isoniazid be used in pregnancy

yeah but must supplement with pyridoxine aka vit b6

10

what are the rifamycins

rifampin and rifabutin

11

mechanism of rifamycins (name them)

rifampin and rifabutin

binds to beta subunit of bacterial DNA dependent RNA polymerase hence blocking transcription --> inhibition of RNA synthesis

12

preferred drug for treatment of TB in HIV positive patients

Rifabutin

13

adverse effects of rifamycins (name them)

rifampin and rifabutin

CYP450 inducer
Orange colored secretions
GI distress

14

mechanism of ethambutol

inhibits arabinosyl transferase involved in mycobacterial cell wall synthesis

15

adverse effects of ethambutol

dose dependent visual disturbances
red green color blindness

16

contraindications of ethambutol

children that are too young for vision tests

17

mechanism of pyrazinamide

conversion of the drug to pyrazinoic acid lowering the pH of environment

18

adverse effects of pyrazinamide

HAN

Hyperuricemia
Acute gouty arthritis
Non gouty polyarthralgia

19

mechanism of ethionamide

congener of isoniazid

20

drugs used to treat leprosy

Dapsone
Clofazimine
Rifampin

21

mechanism of dapsone

dihydropteroate synthesis inhibition --> inhibition of folate synthesis

structurally similar to sulfonamides

22

what is acedapsone

repository form of dapsone that provides inhibitory plasma concentration for several months

23

adverse effects of dapsone

Erythema nodosum leprosum
Hemolysis esp in G6PD
CYP inhibitor

24

mechanism of clofazimine

phenazine dye that bind to DNA to inhibit replication

also has redox properties that generate cytotoxic oxygen radicals

25

adverse effects of clofazimine

red brown discoloration of skin (harmless)
GI irritation
eosinophilic enteritis

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