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Flashcards in Antiparasitics Deck (48):
1

symptoms of amebiasis

mild diarrhea to fulminating dysentery

2

form of entamoeba histolytica and where they survive

cysts (survive outside the body)
trophozoite (do not survive outside body)

3

what are mixed antamebics and name them

Metronidazole and Tinidazole

they are active against luminal and systemic disease

4

what happens to metronidazole once it is absorbed aka mechanism of the drug

nonenzymatically reduced by reacting with ferredoxin --> production of cytotoxic compounds --> bind to protein and DNA --> CELL DEATH

5

adverse effects of metronidazole

-Disulfiram like reaction
-Dark colored urine
-Unpleasant metallic taste
-GI distress

6

what is Tinidazole used for and compare it to metronidazole

-better tolerated than metronidazole and has shorter duration of effects

used for amebiasis, amebic liver abscesses, giardiasis, trichomoniasis

7

what are the luminal antiamebics

Diloxanide Furoate
Iodoquinol
Paromomycin

8

adverse effects of diloxanide furoate

mild GI distress

9

adverse effects of Iodoquinol

if used long term --> optic neuritis
dose related peripheral neuropathy

10

mechanism of paromomycin

aminoglycoside antibiotic that causes cell membrane to leak by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis by binding to 30S

11

adverse effect of paromomycin

GI distress and diarrhea

12

what are the systemic antiamebics and what they are used to treat

Chloroquine
Emetine
Dehydroemetine

used for treating liver abscesses or intestinal wall infections

13

mechanism of chloroquine

it eliminates trophozoites in liver abscesses

14

mechanism of emetine and dehydroemetine

inhibits protein synthesis by blocking ribosomal movement along messenger RNA

15

adverse effects of emetine and dehydroemetine

Pain at site of injection
Cardiotoxicity
Neuromuscular Weakness

16

what are the three helminths and describe them

Nematodes - elongated roundworms that cause infection of intestine, blood, and tissue

Trematodes - leaf shaped flatworms: liver, intestinal, or blood flukes

Cestodes - flat, segmented bodies that attach to host's intestines

17

how do antihelminths works

-locally to expel worms from GI tract
-systemically to eradicate adult helminths or developmental forms

18

what are the benzimidazoles and a common contraindication they all share

Albendazole
Mebendazole
Thiabendzole

Pregnancy

19

mechanism of Albendazole

inhibits microtubule synthesis and glucose uptake --> reduction of ATP production --> worm immobilization --> death

20

what is Albendazole used to treat

cestodal infections like
-Cysticercosis (Tania Solium)
-Hyatid disease (Echinococcus)

21

adverse of albendazole

inflammatory responses to dying parasites in CNS
-headache, hyperthermia, vomiting, convulsions

22

contraindications of albendazole

pregnancy and children under 2

23

mechanism of mebendazole

inhibits formation of helminths microtubules by irreversibly blocking glucose uptake --> parasites expelled in feces

24

clinical applications of mebendazole

Whipworm - Trichuris
Pinworm - Enterobius Vermicularis
Hookworms - Necator americanus and Anyclostoma duodenale
Roundworms - Ascaris

25

contraindication of mebendazole

pregnancy

cautious in those under 2 and those with cirrhosis

26

mechanism of thiabendazole

affects microtubular aggregation

27

clinical applications of thiabendazole

Strongyloides Stercoralis (threadworm)
Cutaneous Larva Migrans
Trichinosis

28

adverse effects of thiabendazole

Stevens Johnson rash
Erythema Multiforme
CNS disturbances

29

mechanism of Ivermectin

GABA agonist --> Cl influx --> hyperpolarization of nerve/muscle cell --> paralysis of parasite --> death of parasite

30

clinical application of ivermectin

Strongyloides (STI)
Onchera Volvulus
Cutaneous Larva Migrans

31

adverse effect of Ivermectin and contraindication

Mazotti like reactions with onchoceriasis
-fever, somnolence, dizziness, hypotension

-Contraindicated in pregnancy and meningitis (may cross BBB)

32

What is Piperazine used to treat and its mechanism

GABA agonist that causes expulsion of warm by peristalsis --> used to treat pinworms and roundworms

33

contraindications of piperazine

seizure disorders

34

MOA of Pyrantel Pamoate and clinical application

depolarizing, neuromuscular blocker

round worms, pinworms, hookworms

35

MOA of diethylcarbamazine and clinical application

immobilizes microfilariae and makes them susceptible to host defenses

lymphatic filariasis, loiasis, and tropical eosinophilia

36

what are most diethylcarbamazine adverse effects due to and what is most common

due to host responses following damage or death of parasite

leukocytosis

37

MOA of doxycycline and what it is used for

indirectly kills wolbachia (intracellular bacterial symbiont of filarial parasites)

Wuchereria Bancrofti and Onchocerciasis

38

MOA of pranziquantel and clinical applications

increases permeability of cell membrane to calcium --> contracture and paralysis of worm --> detachment of suckers from blood vessel walls

schistosomiasis and most trematode and cestode infections

39

adverse effects of pranziquantel and contraindications

drug interaction of CYP450

contraindicated in pregnancy, nursing mothers, and treatment of ocular cysticercosis

40

MOA and clinical application of bithionol

inhibition of helminth's electron transport chain

drug of choice for fasciolosis (sheep liver fluke)

41

MOA and clinical app of niclosamide

inhibits mitochondrial phosphorylation of ADP --> lethal to cestode scolex and segments of cestode but not ova

most cestode infections

42

what do you give before administering niclosamide and what do you avoid

give laxative to purge all dead segment of cestode in order to preclude digestion of and liberation of ova


avoid alcohol within a day of giving dose

43

what are the antihelminths

PPPin bamDD

Piperazine
Praziquantel
Pyrantel Pamoate
Ivermectin
Niclosamide

Bithionol
Albendazole
Mebendazole
Diethylcarbamazine
Doxycycline

44

what is pentamidine used for

hemolymphatic stage of trypanosomiasis and pneumocystis jirovecii infections

45

used for treatment of toxoplamosis

Pyrimethamine + Clindamycin or Sulfadiazine + folinic acid

46

treatment of leishmaniasis of all stages

sodium stibogluconate or amphoteracin B

47

uses to treat African Trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness)

Suramin or Melarsoprol

48

what is co-trimoxazole used for (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole)

pneumocystic jirovecii infections

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