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Flashcards in Cardio Drugs Deck (34)
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1
Q

Primary HTN can be treated with (4):

A

1. diuretics 2. ACE inhibitors 3. ARBs 4. calcium channel blockers

2
Q

Treatment for HTN w/ CHF

A

1. diuretics 2. ACE inhibitors/ARBs 3. beta-blockers 4. aldosterone antagonists

3
Q

Beta-blockers are contraindicated in...

A

cardiogenic shock.

4
Q

HTN with diabetes mellitus should be treated with...

A

1. ACE inhibitors/ARBs 2. calcium channel blockers 3. diuretics 4. beta-blockers 5. alpha-blockers

5
Q

IN DM, ACE inhibitors and ARBs are protective against...

A

diabetic nephropathy.

6
Q

Dihydropyridine Calcium Channel Blockers

A

1. Amlodipine 2. Nimodipine 3. Nifedipine

7
Q

Non-Dihydropyridine Caclium Channel Blockers

A

1. Diltiazem 2. Verapamil

8
Q

Calcium Channel Blockers MOA

A

block voltage-dependent L-type calcium channels of cardiac and smooth muscle, thereby reducing muscle contractility

9
Q

Calcium channel blockers that have the most effect on vessels are...

A

amlodipine and nifedipine

10
Q

Calcium channel blockers that have the most effect on the heart are...

A

verapamil and diltiazem

11
Q

Clinical use of Dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers

A

-HTN -angina -raynaud

12
Q

Clinical use of Non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers

A

-HTN -angina -atrial fib/flutter

13
Q

Nimodipine is used for...

A

subarachnoid hemorrhage to prevent cerebral vasospasm.

14
Q

Toxicity of Calcium Channel Blockers

A

-cardiac depression -AV block -peripheral edema -flushing -dizziness -hyperprolactinemia -constipation

15
Q

Hydralazine MOA

A

-increased cGMP leads to smooth muscle relaxation. It vasodilates arterioles the most leading to afterload reduction.

16
Q

Clinical use of Hydralazine

A

-HTN, CHF -HTN in pregnancy (first-line with methyldopa) -frequently w/ beta-blockers to prevent reflex tachycardia

17
Q

Toxicity of Hydralazine

A

-compensatory tachycardia -fluid retention -nausea -HA -angina -Lupus like syndrome

18
Q

Commonly used drugs for hypertensive emergency are...

A

nitroprusside, nicardipine, clevidipine, labetalol, and fenoldopam.

19
Q

Nitroprusside features

A

-increase cGMP via direct release of NO -can cause cyanide toxicity

20
Q

Fenoldopam is a...

A

Dopamine D1 agonist that causes coronary, peripheral, renal and splanchnic vasodilation. Decreases BP and increases natriuresis.

21
Q

MOA of Nitroglycerin, isosorbide dinitrate

A

vasodilates by increased NO in vascular smooth muscle leading to increase in cGMP and smooth muscle relaxation. Dilates veins the most leading to decreased preload.

22
Q

Clinical use of Nitroglycerin, isosorbide dinitrate

A

-angina -acute coronary syndrome -pulmonary edema

23
Q

Toxicity of Nitroglycerin, isosorbide dinitrate

A

-reflex tachycardia -hypotension -flushing -headache

24
Q

Cholestyramine, Colestipol, Colesevelam

A

bile acid resins

25
Q

Ezetimibe

A

cholesterol absorption blocker

26
Q

Gemfibrozil, Clofibrate, Bezafibrate, Fenofibrate

A

Fibrates

27
Q

Digoxin is a...

A

cardiac glycoside.

28
Q

MOA of Digoxin

A

direct inhibition of Na/K ATPase leads to indirect inhibition of Na/Ca exchanger. Increased Ca is positive inotropy which stimulates the vagus nerve and decreases HR.

29
Q

Clinical use of Digoxin

A

CHF, a fib

30
Q

Toxicity of Digoxin

A

-Cholinergic effects -increased PR, decreased QT, ST scooping, Twave inverion, AV block, arrhythmia

31
Q

Antidote for Digoxin toxicity

A

-slowly normalize K -cardiac pacer -anti-digoxin Fab fragments -Mg

32
Q

Adenosine is an antiarrhythmic that works by...

A

increasing extracellular potassium leading to hyperpolarization and decreased influx of calcium

33
Q

Adenosine is the drug of choice for...

A

supraventricular tachycardia.

34
Q

Mg2+ is used for...

A

torsades de pointes and digoxin toxicity.