Endocrine - First Aid Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Endocrine - First Aid Deck (261)
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1

The thyroid diverticulum arises from...

the floor of the primitive pharynx and descends into the neck.

2

The thyroid diverticulum is connected to the...

tongue by the thyroglossal duct, which normally disappears but may persist as a pyramidal lobe of the thyroid.

3

The normal remnant of the thyroglossal duct is the...

foramen cecum.

4

The most common ectopic thyroid tissue site is the...

tongue.

5

A thyroglossal duct cyst presents as...

an anterior midline neck mass that moves with swallowing or protrusion of the tongue.

6

A persistent cervical sinus leads to a...

branchial cleft cyst in the lateral neck.

7

The zona glomerulosa of the adrenal is regulated by...

renin-angiotensin and secretes aldosterone.

8

The zona fasiculata is regulated by...

ACTH, CRH and secretes cortisol (and sex hormones).

9

The zona reticularis is regulated by...

ACTH and CRH and secretes sex hormones (androgens).

10

The chromaffin cells of the medulla are regulated by...

preganglionic sympathetic fibers (ACh) and secrete catecolemines (NE and epinephrine).

11

Pheochromocytoma is the...

most common tumor of the adrenal medulla in adults and presents with episodic HTN.

12

Neuroblastoma is the...

most common tumor the adrenal medulla in children. It rarely causes hypertension.

13

The left adrenal gland is drained by the...

left adrenal vein to the left renal vein to the IVC.

14

THe right adrneal gland is drained by the...

right adrenal vein to the IVC.

15

The posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis) secretes...

vasopressin (aka ADH) and oxytocin.

16

Vasopressin and oxytocin are made in the...

hypothalamus and are shipped to the posterior pituitary via neurophysins.

17

The posterior pituitary is derived from...

neuroectoderm.

18

The anterior pituitary (adenohypophyisis) secretes...

FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH prolactin, GH and melanotropin (MSH).

19

Anterior pituitary is derived from...

oral ectoderm (Rathke pouch).

20

Acidophils

GH and prolactin

21

Basophils

FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH

22

The Islets of Langerhans are collections of...

alpha, beta, and delta endocrine cells arising from pancreatic buds.

23

alpha cells secrete...

glucagon.

24

beta cells secrete...

insulin

25

delta cells secrete...

somatostatin

26

Preproinsulin is synthesized in the...

RER and cleavage of the "presignal" leads to proinsulin (stored in secretory granules).

27

Cleavage of proinsulin leads to...

exocytosis of insulin and C-peptide equally.

28

Insulin and C-peptide are both increased in...

insulinoma whereas exogenous insulin lacks C-peptide.

29

Function of Insulin

Binds insulin receptors (tyrosine kinase activity), inducing glucose uptake (carrier-mediated) in insulin-dependent tissues and gene transcription.

30

Anabolic effects of Insulin (7)

1. increased glucose transport in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue 2. increased glycogen synthesis and storage 3. increased triglyceride synthesis 4. increased Na+ retention (kidneys) 5. increased protein synthesis 6. increased cellular uptake of K+ and amino acids 7. decreased glucagon release