Pharmacology - First Aid Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pharmacology - First Aid Deck (268):
1

Km is inversely related to...

the affinity of the enzyme for its substrate.

2

Vmax is directly proportional to...

the enzyme concentration.

3

Most enzymatic reactions follow...

a hyperbolic curve (follow Michaelis-Menten kinetics); however, enzymatic reactions that exhibit a sigmoid curve usually indicate cooperative kinetics (ex. hemoglobin).

4

On a Lineweaver-Burk plot, increased y-intercept means...

decreased Vmax.

5

On a Lineweaver-Burk plot, the further to the right the x-intercept...

the greater the Km and the lower the affinity.

6

Slope of a Lineweaver Burk-plot =

Km/Vmax

7

x-intercept of Lineweaver-Burk plot =

1/-Km

8

y-intercept of Lineweaver-Burk plot =

1/Vmax

9

On a Lineweaver-Burk plot, competitive inhibitors...

cross each other competitively, whereas noncompetitive inhibitors do not.

10

Inhibitors that resemble substrate

Competitive (both reversible and irreversible)

11

Inhibitor that is overcome by increased substrate

reversible, competitive inhibitors

12

Competitors that bind the active site

competitive, both reversible and irreversible

13

Effect of competitors on Vmax

Competitive reversible: unchanged Competitive irreversible: decreased Noncompetitive: decreased

14

Effect of competitiors on Km

Competitive reversible: increased Competitive irreversible: unchanged Noncompetitive: unchanged

15

Pharmacodynamics of competitors

Competitive reversible: decreased potency Competitive irreversible: decreased efficacy Noncompetitive: decreased efficacy

16

Pharmacokinetics

the effects of the body on the drug (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion)

17

Pharmacodynamics

the effects of the drug on the body (receptor binding, drug efficacy/potency, toxicity)

18

Bioavailability (F) is the...

fraction of administered drug that reaches the systemic circulation unchanged.

19

For an IV dose, F =

100%. Orally, F typically is

20

The volume of distribution (Vd) is the...

theoretical volume occupied by teh total absorbed drug amount at the plasma concentration.

21

The apparent volume of distribution of plasma protein boudn drugs can be altered by...

liver and kidney disease becasue decreased protein binding will increase Vd.

22

Vd =

(amount of drug in the body)/(plasma drug concentration)

23

Vd is usually low if the drug is in the...

blood. Drug types include large, charged molecules that are plasma protein bound.

24

Vd is medium if the drug is in the...

ECF. Drug types include small hydrophilic molecules.

25

Vd is large if the drug is in...

all tissues including fat. Drug types include small lipophilic molecules, especially if bound to tissue protein.

26

Half-life (t1/2) is the...

time required to change the amoun tof drug in the body by 1/2 during elimination (or constant infusion).

27

To reach steady state, a drug infused at a constant rate takes...

4-5 half lives.

28

t1/2 =

(.693 x Vd)/CL

29

Clearance (CL) is the...

volume of plasma cleared of drug per unit time. It may be impaired by defects in cardiac, hepatic or renal function.

30

CL =

(rate of elimination of drug)/(plasma drug concentration) = Vd x Ke

31

Loading dose =

(Cp x Vd)/F

32

Maintenance dose =

(Cp x CL x tau)/F

33

In renal or liver disease, maintenance dose...

decreases and loading dose is usually unchanged.

34

Time to steady state primarily depends on...

t1/2 and is independent of dose and dosing frequency.

35

Zero order elimination is when...

the rate of elimination is constant regardless of Cp. (capacity-limited elimination) (it is a constant AMOUNT of drug eliminated per unit time)

36

In zero order elimination, with time, Cp decreases...

linearly.

37

Examples of drugs with zero order elimination

Phenytoin Ethanol Aspirin

38

First order elimination is...

when the rate of elimination is directly proportional to the drug concentration. (flow-dependent elimination) (a constant FRACTION of drug is eliminated per unit time)

39

In first order elimination, with time, Cp decreases...

exponentially.

40

Ionized drug species are...

trapped in the urine and cleared quickly. Netural forms can be reabsorbed.

41

Examples of weak acids

Phenobarbital, Methotrexate, aspirin (overdose should be treated with bicarbonate)

42

Weak acids become..

trapped in basic environments.

43

Example of weak base

Amphetamines (overdose should be treated with ammonium chloride)

44

Weak bases become...

trapped in acidic environments.

45

Phase I of drug metabolism includes...

reduction, oxidations, hydrolysis with cytochrome P-450 usually yields slightly plar, water-soluble metabolites (often still active).

46

Geriatric patients lose...

phase I first.

47

Phase II of drug metabolism includes...

conjugation (glucuronidation, acetylation, and sulfation) which usually yields very polar, inactive metabolites that are renally excreted.

48

Patients who are slow acetylators have...

greater side effects from certain drugs due to decreased rate of metabolism.

49

Efficacy is the..

maximal effect a drug can produce.

50

High-efficacy drug classes are...

analgesics, antibiotics, antihistamines and decongestants.

51

Potency is the...

amount of drug needed for a given effect. Increased potency has increased affinity for receptors.

52

High potency drug classes include...

chemo, antihypertensives, and lipid-lowering drugs.

53

Therapeutic index is a measure of...

drug safety. Safer drugs have higher TI values.

54

Examples of drugs with lower TI values include...

digoxin, lithium, theophylline and warfarin.

55

TI =

(TD50)/(ED50) = (median toxic dose)/(median effective dose)

56

The therapeutic window is the...

measure of clinical drug effectivenes for a pt.

57

The adrenal medulla and sweat glands are part of...

the sympathetic nervous system but are innervated by cholinergic fibers.

58

Botulinum toxin prevents release of...

NT at all cholinergic terminals.

59

Nicotinic ACh receptors are...

ligand gated Na+/K+ channels.

60

Subtypes of nicotinic receptors are...

N(N) - found in autonomic ganglia N(M) - found in NMJ

61

Muscarinic ACh receptors are...

G-protein coupled receptors that usually act through 2nd messengers. 5 subtypes (M1, M2, M3, M4 and M5).

62

alpha1 receptor G-protein class

q

63

alpha2 receptor G-protein class

i

64

beta1 and beta2 receptor G-protein class

s

65

alpha1 receptor major functions (3)

1. increase vascular smooth muscle contraction 2. increase pupillary dilator muscle contraction 9mydriasis) 3. increase intestinal and bladder sphincter muscle contraction

66

alpha2 receptor major functions (4)

1. decrease sympathetic outflow 2. decrease insulin release 3. decrease lipolysis 4. increase platelet aggregation

67

beta1 receptor major functions (4)

1. increase hr 2. increase contractility 3. increase renin release 4. increase lipolysis

68

beta2 receptor major functions (9)

1. vasodilation 2. bronchodilation 3. increase hr 4. increase contractility 5. increase lipolysis 6. increase insulin release 7. decrese uterine tone 8. ciliary muscle relaxation 9. increase aqueous humor production

69

Sympathetic receptors

alpha1 alpha2 beta1 beta2

70

Parasympathetic receptors

M1 M2 M3

71

M1 and M3 G-protein class

q

72

M2 G-protein class

i

73

M1 receptor major functions

CNS, enteric nervous system

74

M2 receptor major functions

decrease hr and contractility of atria

75

M3 receptor major functions (6)

1. increase exocrine gland secretions 2. increase gut peristalsis 3. increase bladder contraction 4. bronchoconstriction 5. increase pupillary sphincter muscle contraction (miosis) 6. ciliary muscle contraction (accommodation)

76

D1 receptor G-protein class

s

77

D2 receptor G-protein class

i

78

D1 receptor major function

relaxes renal vascular smooth muscle

79

D2 receptor major function

modulates transmitter releases, especially in the brain

80

H1 receptor G-protein class

q

81

H2 receptor G-protein class

s

82

H1 receptor major functions (5)

1. increased nasal and bronchial mucus production 2. increased vascular permeability 3. contraction of bronchiles 4. pruritis 5. pain

83

H2 receptor major functions

increase gastric acid secretion

84

V1 (vasopressin) G-protein class

q

85

V2 (Vasopressin) G-protein class

s

86

V1 receptor major function

increase vascular smooth muscle contraction

87

V2 receptor major function

increase H2O permeability and reabsorption in the collecting tubules of the kidney

88

Gq proteins interact with...

phospholipase C

89

Gs and Gi interact with..

adenylyl cyclase

90

Release of NE from a sympathetic nerve ending is modulated by...

NE itself, acting on presynaptic alpha2 autoreceptors, AngII and other substances.

91

Direct ACh agonists (4)

1. Bethanechol 2. Carbachol 3. Pilocarpine 4. Methacholine

92

Bethanechol action

activate bowel and bladder smooth muscle; resistant to AChE

93

Use of Bethanechol

postoperative ileus, neurogenic ileus and urinary retention

94

Carbachol action

carbon copy of acetylcholine

95

Use of Carbachol

-glaucoma -pupillary constriction -relief of intraocular pressure

96

Pilocarpine action

contracts ciliary muscle of eye, pupillary sphincter; resistant to AChE

97

Use of Pilocarpine

-potent stimulator of tears, sweat and saliva -open and closed angle glaucoma

98

Methacholine Action

stimulates muscarinic receptors in the airway when inhaled

99

Methacholine use

challenge test for asthma diagnosis

100

Indirect agonists of ACh (anticholinesterases) (5ish)

1. Neostigmine 2. Pyridostigmine 3. Physostigmine 4. Donepezil, Rivastigmine, Galantamine 5. Edrophonium (they all increase endogenous ACh)

101

Use of Neostigmine

-postoperative and neurogenic ileus and urinary retention, myasthenia gravis, reversal of NMJ blockade

102

Use of Pyridostigmine

myasthenia gravis (long acting) (does not penetrate CNS)

103

Use of Donepezil, Rivastigmine, Galantamine

Alzheimer's

104

Use of Edrophonium

Dx of myastenia gravis (historically) *Myasthenia gravis now diagnosed by anti-AChR Ab

105

With all cholinomimetic agents, watch for..

exacerbation of COPD, asthma, and peptic ulcers.

106

Cholinesterase inhibitor poisoning is often due to..

organophosphates such as parathion that irreversibly inhibit AChE. Organophosphates are components of incesticides so this poisoning is usually seen in farmers.

107

Cholinesterase inhibitor poisoning causes...

diarrhea, urination, miosis, bronchospasm, bradycardia, excitation of skeletal muscle and CNS, lacrimation, sweating and salivation.

108

Antidote for cholinesterase inhibitor poisoning

atropine (competitive inhibitor) + pralidoxime (regenerates AChE)

109

Atropine, homatropine and tropicamide are...

muscarinic antagonists that work on the eye to produce mydriasis and cycloplegia.

110

Benztropine is a...

muscarinic antagonist that works on the CNS for parkinson disease.

111

Scopolamine is a...

muscarinic antagonist that works on the CNS for motion sickness.

112

Ipratropium and tiotropium are...

muscarinic antagonists that work on the respiratory system for COPD and asthma.

113

Oxybutynin, darifenacin adn solifenacin are...

muscarinic antagonists that work on the GU system to reduce urgency in mild cystitis and reduce bladder spasms. Also: tolterodine, fesoterdine, trospium

114

Glycopyrrolate is a...

muscarinic antagonist that works on the GI and respiratory systems to reduce airway secretions, drooling and peptic ulcers.

115

Atropine treats...

bradycardia and ophthalmic problems.

116

Atropine actions (5)

1. increase pupil dilation and cycloplegia 2. decreases airway secretions 3. decreses stomach acid secretions 4. decreases gut motility 5. decreses urgency in cystitis

117

Atropine toxicity

increased body temp, rapid pulse, dry mouth and skin, cycloplegia, constipation, disorientation

118

Atropine toxicity can cause...

acute angle-closure glaucoma in the elderly, urinary retention in men with prostatic hyperplasia and hyperthermia in infants.

119

Epinephrine works on...

mainly beta receptors to treat anapylaxis, open angle glaucoma, astham, hypotention. (the alpha effects predominate at high doses)

120

Norepinephrine works mainly on...

alpha1 receptor to treat hypotension (but it decreases renal perfusion).

121

Isoproterenol works on..

beta 1 and beta 2 equally for electrophysiologic evaluationof tachyarrhythmias. It can worsen ischemia.

122

Dopamine treats...

unstable bradycardia, heart failure, shock (it has inotropic and chronotropic alpha effects at very high doses)

123

Dobutamine works on...

beta 1 and alpha receptors to treat heart failure and for cardiac stress testing.

124

Phenlyephrine works on..

alpha1 receptors mainly to treat hypotension, for ocular procedures (mydriatic) and rhinitis.

125

Albuterol, Salmeterol and Terbutaline work on...

beta2 more than beta1.

126

Amphetamine is an...

indirect general sympathomimetic agonist, reuptake inhibitor and also releases stored catecholamines.

127

Amphetamine is used to...

treat narcolepsy, obesity, ADHD.

128

Ephedrine is an..

indirect general sympathomimetic agonist that als releases stored catecholamines.

129

Ephedrine is used for...

nasal decongestion, urinary incontinence, and hypotension.

130

Cocaine is an...

indirect general sympathomimetic agonist and reuptake inhibitors.

131

Cocaine causes...

vasoconstriction and local anesthesia.

132

Never give beta-blockers if cocaine intoxication is suggested because....

it can lead to unopposed alpha1 activation and extreme HTN.

133

NE causes an increase in...

systolic and diastolic pressures as a result of alpha1-mediated vasoconstriction. This leads to increased mean arterial pressure which leads to bradycardia.

134

Isoproterenol has little alpha effect but causes...

Beta2 mediated vasodilation resulting in decreased mean arterial pressure adn increased HR through beta1 and reflex activity.

135

Clonidine is an...

alpha2-agonist (a sympatholytic).

136

Clonidine is used for...

hypertensive urgency (does not decrease renal blood flow); ADHD; severe pain

137

Clonidine toxicity

CNS depression bradycardia hypotension respiratory depression small pupil size

138

alpha-methyldopa is an...

alpha2-agonist (a sympatholytic).

139

Alpha-methyldopa is used for...

HTN in pregnancy.

140

Toxicity of alpha-methyldopa

direct coombs + hemolytic anemia SLE-like syndrome

141

Phenoxybenzamine is an...

irreversible alpha blocker (nonselective).

142

Phenoxybenzamine is used to treat...

pheochromocytoma to prevent catecholamine crisis.

143

Toxicity of Phenoxybenzamine

orthostatic hypotension, reflex tachycardia

144

Phentolamine is a...

reversible alpha-blocker (nonselective).

145

Phentolamine is given to pts on...

MAO inhibitors who eat tyramine containing foods.

146

alpha1-selective blockers (4)

1. Prazosin 2. Terazosin 3. Doxazosin 4. Tamsulosin

147

Use of Prazosin, Terazosin, Doxazosin, and Tamsulosin

urinary symptoms of BPH PTSD (prazosin) HTN (except tamsulosin)

148

Toxicity of Prazosin, Terazosin, Doxazosin, and Tamsulosin

orthostatic hypotension, dizziness, HA

149

Mirtazapine is an...

alpha2 sective blocker used for depression.

150

Beta-blockers (10)

1. Metoprolol 2. Acebutolol 3. Betaxolol 4. Carvedilol 5. Esmolol 6. Atenolol 7. Nadolol 8. Timolol 9. Pindolol 10. Labetolol

151

Beta-blocker indications (6)

1. angina 2. MI 3. SVT 4. HTN 5. CHF 6. Glaucoma

152

Beta-blockers are used for angina because...

they decrease HR and contractility resulting in decreased O2 consumption.

153

Beta-blockers are used for MI because they...

decrease mortality. (Metoprolol, Carvedilol and Bisoprolol)

154

Beta-blockers are used for SVT because they...

decrease AV conduction velocity. (Metoprolol and Esmolol)

155

Beta-blockers are used for HTN bc they...

decrease CO, decrease renin secretion (due to beta1 blockade on JGA cells)

156

Beta-blockers are used for CHF because they...

slow the progression of chronic failure.

157

Beta-blockers are used for glaucoma because they...

decrease secretion of aqueous humor. (timolol)

158

Toxicity of Beta-blockers includes...

impotence CV adverse effects CNS adverse effects dyslipidemia (metoprolol) exacerbation of asthma/COPD

159

Beta1-selective antagonists (5)

1. Acebutolol (partial agonist) 2. Atenolol 3. Betaxolol 4. Esmolol 5. Metoprolol

160

Nonselective beta antagonists

1. Nadolol 2. Pindolol (partial agonist) 3. Propranolol 4. Timolol

161

Nonselective alpha and beta antagonists

Carvedilol and Labetalol

162

Nebivolol combines...

cardiac selective beta1-adrenergic blockade with stimulation of beta3 receptors, which activate NO synthase in the vasculature.

163

Acetaminophen antidote

N-acetylcysteine (replenishes glutathione)

164

AChE inhibitors, organophosphates antidote

Atropine followed by Pralidoxime

165

Amphetamines antidote

NH4Cl (acidifies urine)

166

Antimuscarinic, anticholinergic agent antidotes

Physostigmine salicylate, control hyperthermia

167

Benzodiazepines antidote

Flumazenil

168

Beta-blockers antidote

glucagon

169

CO antidote

100% O2, hyperbaric O2

170

Copper, arsenic, gold (antidote)

penicillamine

171

Cyanide antidote

nitrite + thiosulfate + hydroxocobalamin

172

Digitalis antidote

Anti-dig Fab fragments

173

Heparin antidote

Protamine sulfate

174

Iron antidote

Deferoxamine, deferasirox

175

Lead antidote

EDTA, dimercaprol, succimer, penicillamine

176

Mercury, arsenic, gold antidote

dimercaprol, succimer

177

Methanol, polyethylene glycol (antifreeze) antidote

fomepizole, dialysis

178

Methemoglobin antidote

Methylene blue, vitamin C

179

Opioid antidote

naloxone

180

Salicylates antidote

NaHCO3 (alkalinize urine), dialysis

181

TCAs antidote

NaHCO3 (plasma alkalinization)

182

tPA, streptokinase, urokinase antidote

aminocaproic acid

183

Warfarin antidote

vitamin K, plasma

184

Coronary vasospasm can be caused by...

cocaine, sumatriptan and ergot alkaloids

185

Cutaneous flushing can be caused by...

vancomycin, adenosine, niacin, and calcium channel blockers

186

Dilated cardiomyopathy can be caused by...

doxorubicin and danorubicin

187

Torsades de pointes can be caused by

class III (sotalol) and class IA (quinidine) antiarrhythmics, macrolides, antipsychotics and TCAs

188

Adrenocortical insufficiency is caused by...

HPA suppression secondary to glucocorticoid withdrawal.

189

Hot flashes can be caused by...

tamoxifen and clomiphene.

190

Hyperglycemia can be caused by..

tacrolimus, protease inhibitors, niacin, HCTZ, beta-blockers and corticosteroids.

191

Hypothyroidism can be caused by...

lithium, amiodarone, and sulfonamides.

192

Acute cholestatic hepatitis and jaundice can be caused by...

erythromycin.

193

Diarrhea can be caused by...

Metformin, Erythromycin, Colchicine, Orlistat and Acarbose.

194

Focal to massive hepatic necrosis can be caused by...

halothane, amanita phalloides, valproic acid, and acetaminophen.

195

Pancreatitis can be caused by...

didanosine, corticosteroids, alcohol, valproic acid, azathioprine, and diuretics

196

Pseudomembranous colitis can be caused by...

clindamycin, ampicillin and cephalosporins

197

Agranulocytosis can be caused by...

dapsone, clozapine, carbamazepine, colchicine, methimazole, NSAIDs, and PTU

198

Aplastic anemia can be caused by...

carbamazepine, methimazole, NSAIDs, benzene, chloramphenicol and PTU

199

Direct Coombs-positive hemolytic anemia can be caused by...

methyldopa and penicillin

200

Gray baby syndrome can be caused by...

chloramphenicol.

201

Hemolysis in G6PD deficiency can be caused by...

INH, Sulfonamides, Dapsone, Primaquine, Aspirin, Ibuprofen and Nitrofurantoin.

202

Megaloblastic anemia can be caused by...

phenytoin, methotrexate and sulfa drugs.

203

Thrombocytopenia can be caused by...

heparin and cimetidine.

204

Fat redistribution is caused by...

protease inhibitors and glucocorticoids.

205

Gingival hyperplasia is caused by...

phenytoin, verapamil, cyclosporine and nifedipine.

206

Hyperuricemia (gout) can be caused by...

pyrazinamide, thiazides, furosemide, niacin and cyclosporine.

207

Myopathy can be caused by...

fibrates, niacin, cochicine, hydroxychloroquine, IFN-alpha, penicillamine, statins, and glucocorticoids.

208

Osteoporosis can be caused by..

corticosteroids and heparin.

209

Photosensitivity can be caused by...

sulfonamides, amiodarone, tetracyclines, and 5-FU.

210

Rash (Stevens-Johnson syndrome) is caused by...

Anti-epileptic drugs (ethosuxamide, carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin, phenobarbital), Allopurinol, sulfa drugs and penicillin.

211

SLE-like syndrome is caused by...

sulfa drugs, hydralzine, INH, procainamide, phenytoin and etanercept.

212

Tendonitis, tendon rupture and cartilage damage is caused by...

fluoroquinolones.

213

Cinchonism is caused by...

quinidine and quinine.

214

Parkinson-like syndrome is caused by...

antipsychotics (esp. typicals), Reserpine and Metoclopramide.

215

Seizures are caused by...

INH (B6 deficiency), Bupropion, Imipenem/Cilastatin, Tramadol, Enflurane and Metoclopromide.

216

Tardive dyskinease is caused by...

Antipsychotics (esp. typicals) and Metoclopramide.

217

Diabetes insipidus can be caused by...

lithium and demeclocycline.

218

Fanconi syndrome can be caused by...

expired tetracylcine.

219

Hemorrhagic cystitis can be caused by...

cyclophosphamide and Ifosfamide. This side effect can be prevented by co-administering with Mesna.

220

Interstitial nephritis can be casued by...

methicillin, NSAIDs, and furosemide.

221

SIADH can be caused by...

carbamazepine, cyclophosphamide and SSRIs.

222

Dry cough can be caused by...

ACE inhibitors.

223

Pulmonary fibrosis can be caused by...

bleomycin, amiodarone, busulfan, and methotrexate.

224

Antimuscarinic rxns can be caused by...

atropine, TCAs, H1-blockers and antipsychotics.

225

Disulfiram-like reaction can be caused by...

metronidazole, cephalosporins, griseofulvin, procarbazine, and 1st gen sulfonylureas.

226

Nephrotoxicity/Ototoxicity can be caused by...

aminoglycosides, vancomycin, loop diuretics and cisplatin.

227

CYP450 Inducers (9)

1. Chronic alcohol use 2. Modafinil 3. St. John's wort 4. Phenytoin 5. Phenobarbital 6. Nevirapine 7. Rifampin 8. Griseofulvin 9. Carbamazepine (Chronic alcoholic Mona Steals Phen-Phen and Never Refuses Greasy Carbs)

228

CYP450s Substrates (8)

1. Anti-epileptics 2. Antidepressants 3. Antipsychotics 4. Anesthetics 5. Theophylline 6. Warfarin 7. Statins 8. OCPs (Always, Always, Always, Always Think When Starting Others)

229

CYP450 Inhibitors (12)

1. Acute alcohol abuse 2. Gemfibrozil 3. Ciprofloxacin 4. Isoniazid 5. Grapefruit juice 6. Quinidine 7. Amiodarone 8. Ketoconazole 9. Macrolides 10. Sulfonamides 11. Cimetidine 12. Ritonavir (A cute Gentleman "Cipped" Iced Grapefruit juice Quickly And Kept Munching on Soft Cinammon Rolls)

230

Sulfa drugs (8)

1. Probenecid 2. Furosemide 3. Acetazolamide 4. Celecoxib 5. Thiazides 6. Sulfonamide antibiotics 7. Sulfasalazine 8. Sulfonylureas (Popular FACTSSS)

231

Pts who take sulfa drugs who have sulfa allergies may develop...

fever, UTIs, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis and urticaria.

232

-azole

erogsterol synthesis inhibitor Ex. ketoconazole

233

-bendazole

antiparasitic/antihelmintic ex. Mebendazole

234

-cillin

peptidoglycan synthesis inhibitor (ex. ampicillin)

235

-cycline

protein syntehsis inhibitor (tetracycline)

236

-ivir

neuraminidase inhibitor (oseltamivir)

237

-navir

protease inhibitor (ritonavir)

238

-ovir

DNA polymerase inhibitor (acyclovir)

239

-thromycin

macrolide antibiotic (azithromycin)

240

-ane

inhalational general anesthetic (halothane)

241

-azine

typical antipsychotic (thioridazine)

242

-barbital

barbituate (phenobarbital)

243

-caine

local anesthetic (lidocaine)

244

-etine

SSRI (Fluoxetine)

245

-ipramine

TCA (Imipramine)

246

-triptan

5HT-1B/1D agonists (sumatriptan)

247

-triptyline

TCA (amitryptyline)

248

-zepam

benzodiazepine (Diazepam)

249

-zolam

benzodiazepam (alprazolam)

250

-chol

cholinergic agonist (bethanechol/carbachol)

251

-curium or -curonium

non-deplarizing paralytic (atracurium or vecuronium)

252

-olol

beta-blocker (propranolol)

253

-stigmine

AChE inhibitor (neostigmine)

254

-terol

beta2-agonist (albuterol)

255

-zosin

alpha1-antagonist (prazosin)

256

-afil

PDE-5 inhibitor (sildenafil)

257

-dipine

dihydropyridine CCB (amlodipine)

258

-pril

ACE inhibitor (captopril)

259

-sartan

Angiotensin II receptor blocker (Losartan)

260

-statin

HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (Atorvastatin)

261

-dronate

Bisphosphonate (alendronate)

262

-glitazone

PPAR-gamma activator (Rosiglitazone)

263

-prazole

proton pump inhibitor (omeprazole)

264

-prost

prostaglandin analog (latanoprost)

265

-tidine

H2-antagonist (cimetidine)

266

-tropin

pituitary hormone (somatotropin)

267

-ximab

chimeric monoclonal Ab (basiliximab)

268

-zumab

humanized monoclonal Ab (Daclizumab)