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Flashcards in Microbiology Virology - First Aid Deck (149)
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1

Recombination

exchange of genes between 2 chromosomes by crossing over within regions of significant base sequence homology

2

Reassortment

when viruses with segmented genomes (influenza) exchange segments

3

Compementation

when 1 of 2 viruses that infect the cell has a mutation that results in a nonfunctional protein, the nonmutated virus "complements" the mutated one by making a functional protein that serves both viruses

4

Phenotypic mixing

simultaneous infection of a cell with 2 viruses; genome of virus A can be partially or completely coated with the surface proteins of virus B. Type B protein coat determines the tropism of the hybrid virus but the progeny have a type A coat encoded by the type A genetic material

5

Live attenuated viruses induce...

humoral and cell-mediated immunity but have reverted to virulence on occasion. No booster needed.

6

Killed/inactivated viruses induce....

only humoral immunity but are stable.

7

Live attenuated vaccines (6)

1. smallpox
2. yellow fever
3. chickenpox
4. Sabin polio virus
5. MMR
6. influenza (intranasal)

8

Killed vaccines (4)

1. Rabies
2. Influenza (injected)
3. Salk Polio
4. HAV

9

Recombinant vaccines (2)

1. HBV
2. HPV

10

All DNA viruses are dsDNA except...

parvoviridae.

11

All DNA viruses are linear except...

papilloma, polyoma and hepadna (which are circular).

12

All RNA viruses are ssRNA excpet...

Reoviridae.

13

Positive stranded RNA viruses (7)

Retrovirus
Togavirus
Flavivirus
Coronavirus
Hepevirus
Calicivirus
Picornavirus

14

Purified nucleic acids of most dsDNA and + strand ssRNA viruses are...

infectious.

15

Naked nucleic acids of - strand ssRNA and dsRNA viruses are...

not infectious. They require polymerases conatined in the complete virion.

16

DNA viruses replicate in...

the nucleus, except poxvirus.

17

RNA viruses replicate in...

the cytoplasm, except influenza and retroviruses).

18

Nake viruses include:

papillomavirus
adenovirus
parvovirus
polyomavirus
calicivirus
picornavirus
reovirus
hepevirus

19

Generally, viruses acqurie an envelope from...

plasma membrane when they exit a cell.

(exception: herpesvirus acquires its envelope from the nuclear membrane)

20

DNA viruses (7)

HHAPPPP(y)
1. Hepadna
2. Herpes
3. Adeno
4. Pox
5. Parvo
6. Papilloma
7. Polyoma

21

DNA viruses general rules (4):

1. are double stranded
2. are linear
3. are icosahedral
4. replicate in the nuclus

22

The DNA virus that is not double stranded is...

parvovirus.

23

The DNA viruses that are not linear are...

papillomavirus/polyomavirus (circular, supercoiled) and hepadnavirus (circular, incomplete).

24

The DNA virus that is not icosahedral is...

poxvirus.

25

The DNA virus that does not replicate in the nucleus is...

poxvirus (it carries its own DNA-dependent RNA polymerase).

26

DNA viruses w/ an envelope

1. herpesvirus
2. hepadnavirus
3. poxvirus

27

HBV features

-hepadnavirus
-hepatitis (acute or chronic)
-vaccine (contains surface Ag)
-not a retrovirus but has reverse transcriptase

28

Adenovirus medical importance

-febrile pharyngitis (sore throat)
-acute hemorrhagic cystitis
-pneumonia
-conjunctivitis ("pink eye")

29

Parvovirus features (4)

-B19 virus: aplastic crises in sickle cell
-"slapped cheeks" rash in children: eythema infectiosum (fifth disease)
-RBC destructino in fetus leads to hydrops fetalis and death
-pure RBC aplasia/RA-like symptoms in adults

30

Papillomavirus features

HPV: warts (1,2,6,11)
CIN
Cervical cancer (16, 18)