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Flashcards in Psych - First Aid Deck (308)
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1

Classical conditioning

Learning in which a natural response is elicited by a conditioned stimulus that previously was presented in conjunction with an unconditioned stimulus. Ex. Pavlov's dogs

2

Classical conditioning usually deals with...

involuntary responses.

3

Operant conditioning

learning in which a particular action is elicited becasue it produces a punishment or reward

4

Operant conditioning usually deals with...

voluntary responses.

5

Positive reinforcement

desired reward produces action (mouse presses button to get food)

6

Negative reinforcement

target behavior (response) is followed by removal of averse stimulus (mouse presses button to turn off continuous loud noise)

7

Punishment

repeated application of aversive stimulus extinguishes unwanted behavior

8

Extinction

discontinuation of reinforcement (positive or negative) eventually eliminates the behavior. Can occur in operant or classical conditioning

9

Transference

pt projects feelings about formative or other importnat persons onto physician (ex. psychiatrist is seen as a parent)

10

Countertransference

doctor projects feelings about formative or other important persons onto pt (ex. pt reminds physician of younger sibling)

11

Acting out

expressing unacceptable feelings and thoughts through actions Ex. tantrums

12

Dissociation

temporary, drastic change in personality, memory, consciousness or motor behavior to avoid emotional stress ex. extreme forms can result in dissociative identity disorder

13

Denial

avoiding the awareness of some painful reality ex. a common rxn in newly diagnosed AIDS and cancer pts

14

Displacement

transferring avoided ideas and feelings to some neutral person or object Ex. mother yells at her child bc her husband yelled at her

15

Fixation

partially remaining at a more childish level of development Ex. men fixating on sports games

16

Identification

modeling behavior after another person who is more powerful ex. abused child identifies with abuser

17

Isolation

separating feelings from ideas and events ex. describing murder in graphic detail with no emotional response

18

Projection

attributing an unacceptable internal impulse to an external source ex. a man who wants another woman thinks his wife is cheating on him

19

Rationalization

proclaiming logical reasons for actions actually performed for other reasons, usually to avoid self-blame Ex. after getting fired, claiming that the job was not important anyway

20

Reaction formation

replacing a warded-off idea or feeling by an (unconsciously derived) emphasis on its opposite ex. a pt with libidinous thoughts enters a monastery

21

Regression

turning back the maturational clock and going back to earlier modes of dealing with the world ex. seen in children under stress (illness, punishment, new sibling) - bedwetting in a previously toilet-trained child

22

Repression

involuntary witholding an idea or feeling from conscious awareness Ex. not remembering a conflictual/traumatic experience; pressing bad thoughts into the unconscious

23

Splitting

believing that people are either all good or all bad at different times due to intolerance of ambiguity ex. pt says that all nurses were cold/insensitive but the doctors were warm/friendly

24

Splitting is often seen in...

borderline personality disorder.

25

Altruism

alleviating guilty feelings by unsolicited generosity towards others Ex. mafia boss makes large donation to charity

26

Humor

appreciating the amusing nature of an anxiety-provoking or adverse situation Ex. nervous med student jokes about boards

27

Sublimation

replacing an unacceptable wish with a course of action that is similar to the wish but does not conflict with one's value system Ex. teen's aggression toward his father is redirected to perform well in sports

28

Suppression

intentional witholding of an idea or feeling from conscious awareness ex. choosing not to worry about the big game until it is time to play

29

Long-term deprivation of affection in infants leads to...

-decreased muscle tone -poor language skills -poor socialization skills -lack of basic trust -anaclitic depression -weight loss -physical illness

30

Deprivation in an infant for more than 6 months can...

lead to irreversible changes. Severe deprivation can result in death.