Learning in which a natural response is elicited by a conditioned stimulus that previously was presented in conjunction with an unconditioned stimulus. Ex. Pavlov's dogs
Classical conditioning usually deals with...
learning in which a particular action is elicited becasue it produces a punishment or reward
Operant conditioning usually deals with...
desired reward produces action (mouse presses button to get food)
target behavior (response) is followed by removal of averse stimulus (mouse presses button to turn off continuous loud noise)
repeated application of aversive stimulus extinguishes unwanted behavior
discontinuation of reinforcement (positive or negative) eventually eliminates the behavior. Can occur in operant or classical conditioning
pt projects feelings about formative or other importnat persons onto physician (ex. psychiatrist is seen as a parent)
doctor projects feelings about formative or other important persons onto pt (ex. pt reminds physician of younger sibling)
expressing unacceptable feelings and thoughts through actions Ex. tantrums
temporary, drastic change in personality, memory, consciousness or motor behavior to avoid emotional stress ex. extreme forms can result in dissociative identity disorder
avoiding the awareness of some painful reality ex. a common rxn in newly diagnosed AIDS and cancer pts
transferring avoided ideas and feelings to some neutral person or object Ex. mother yells at her child bc her husband yelled at her
partially remaining at a more childish level of development Ex. men fixating on sports games
modeling behavior after another person who is more powerful ex. abused child identifies with abuser
separating feelings from ideas and events ex. describing murder in graphic detail with no emotional response
attributing an unacceptable internal impulse to an external source ex. a man who wants another woman thinks his wife is cheating on him
proclaiming logical reasons for actions actually performed for other reasons, usually to avoid self-blame Ex. after getting fired, claiming that the job was not important anyway
replacing a warded-off idea or feeling by an (unconsciously derived) emphasis on its opposite ex. a pt with libidinous thoughts enters a monastery
turning back the maturational clock and going back to earlier modes of dealing with the world ex. seen in children under stress (illness, punishment, new sibling) - bedwetting in a previously toilet-trained child
involuntary witholding an idea or feeling from conscious awareness Ex. not remembering a conflictual/traumatic experience; pressing bad thoughts into the unconscious
believing that people are either all good or all bad at different times due to intolerance of ambiguity ex. pt says that all nurses were cold/insensitive but the doctors were warm/friendly
Splitting is often seen in...
borderline personality disorder.
alleviating guilty feelings by unsolicited generosity towards others Ex. mafia boss makes large donation to charity
appreciating the amusing nature of an anxiety-provoking or adverse situation Ex. nervous med student jokes about boards
replacing an unacceptable wish with a course of action that is similar to the wish but does not conflict with one's value system Ex. teen's aggression toward his father is redirected to perform well in sports
intentional witholding of an idea or feeling from conscious awareness ex. choosing not to worry about the big game until it is time to play
Long-term deprivation of affection in infants leads to...
-decreased muscle tone -poor language skills -poor socialization skills -lack of basic trust -anaclitic depression -weight loss -physical illness
Deprivation in an infant for more than 6 months can...
lead to irreversible changes. Severe deprivation can result in death.