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Flashcards in Neuro Drugs Deck (101)
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1

Epinephrine is an...

alpha-agonist that decreases aqueous humor synthesis via vasoconstriction. (use for open-angle glaucoma)

2

Side effects of Epinephrine

mydriasis (do NOT use in closed-angle glaucoma)

3

Brimonidine is an...

alpha2-agonist that decreased aquous humor synthesis (glaucoma)

4

Brimonidine side effects

-blurry vision -ocular hyperemia -foregin body sensation -ocular allergic rxn and pruritis

5

Timolol, betaxolol and carteolol are...

beta-blockers that decrease aqueous humor synthesis. (glaucoma)

6

Acetazolamide is a...

diuretic that decreases aqeous humor synthesis via inhibition of carbonic anhydrase.

7

Pilocarpine and Carbachol are...

direct cholinomimetics that increase outflow of aqueous humor via contraction of ciliary muscle and opening of trabecular meshwork. (glaucoma)

8

Side effects of Pilocarpine and Carbachol

miosis and cyclospasm (contraction of ciliary muscle)

9

Physostigimine and Echothiophate are..

indirect cholinomimetics that can be used in emergencies and are very effective at opening meshwork into the canal of Schlemm.

10

Latanoprost is a...

PGF2alpha agonist that increases outflow of aqueous humor.

11

Latanoprost side effect

darkens color of iris

12

Opioid analgesics (8)

1. morphine 2. fentanyl 3. codeine 4. loperamide 5. methadone 6.meperidine 7. dextromethorphan 8. diphenoxylate

13

Opioids mechanism

act as agonists at opioid receptors to modulate synaptic transmission (open K+ channels and close Ca2+ leading to decreased synaptic transmission); this inhibits release of ACh, NE, 5-HT, glutamate and substance P

14

opiod receptors

mu = morphine delta = enkephalin kappa = dynorphin

15

Clinical use of opioids (5)

pain cough suppression diarrhea (loperamide and diphenoxylate) acute pulmonary edema maintenance for heroin addicts (methadone)

16

Toxciity of opioids

-addiction -respiratory depression -constipation -miosis -additive CNS depression

17

Butorphanol MOA

mu-opioid partial agonist and kappa-opioid agonist; produces analgesia

18

Use of Butorphanol

-severe pain

19

Butorphanol can cause opioid withdrawal symptoms if...

pt is also taking full opioid agonist.

20

Tramadol MOA

weak opioid agonist; also inhibits serotonin and NE reuptake

21

Use of Tramadol

chronic pain

22

Toxicity of Tramadol

-similar to opioids -decreases seizure threshold -serotonin syndrome

23

Ethosuximide use

absence seizures (first line)

24

MOA of Ethosuximide

blocks thalamic T-Type Calcium channels

25

Side effects of Ethosuxamide

EFGHIJ -fatigue -GI distress -Headache -Itching -stevens-Johnson syndrome

26

Benzodiazepines (2)

1. Diazepam 2. Lorazepam

27

Use of Diazepam and Lorazepam

status epilepticus

28

MOA of Benzodiazepines

increase GABAa action (can also be used for eclampsia seizures)

29

SE of Benzodiazepines

sedation, tolerance, dependence, respiratory depression

30

Phenytoin Use

Simple partial seizures complex partial seizures tonic-clonic seizures status epilepticus