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Flashcards in Respiratory - First Aid Deck (221)
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1

Large airways consist of...

nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea and bronchi.

2

Small airways consist of...

bronchioles and terminal bronchioles (large numbers in parallel give the least resistance).

3

The conducting zone acts to...

warm, humidify and filter air but it does not participate in gas exchange. It is anatomic dead space.

4

Cartilage and goblet cells extend to...

the end of the bronchi.

5

Pseudostratified ciliated columnar cells (which beat mucus up and out of the lungs) extend to...

the beginning of the terminal bronchiles and then transitions to the cuboidal cells.

6

Airway smooth muscles extend to...

the end of terminal bronchioles and is sparse beyond this point.

7

The respiratory zone consists of...

respiratory bronchiles, alveolar ducts and alveoli. These participate in gas exchange.

8

The respiratory zone is mostly made of...

cuboidal cells in respiratory bronchioles and then is simple squamous cells up to the alveoli. No cilia.

9

Type I pneumocytes make up...

97% of the alveolar surfaces. They line the alveoli. Squamous. Thin for optimal gas diffusion.

10

Type II pneumocytes secrete...

pulmonary surfactant which leads to decreased alveolar surface tension and prevention of alveolar collapse (atelectasis). They are cuboidal and clustered.

11

Type II pneumocytes also serve as...

precursors to type I cells and other type II cells. They proliferate during lung damage.

12

Clara (club) cells are...

nonciliated; columnar/cuboidal with secretory granules.

13

Clara cells secrete...

a component of surfactant and degrade toxins.

14

Collapsing pressure =

2(surface tension)/radius

15

Alveoli have increased tendency to collapse on...

expiration as radius decreases.

16

Pulmonary surfactant is a complex mixture of...

lecithins, the most important of which is dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine.

17

Surfactant synthesis begins around...

week 26 of gestation but mature levels are not achieved until around week 35.

18

Lecithin to sphingomyelin ratio that indicates fetal lung maturity is...

> 2.

19

Right lung has...

3 lobes. Left Lobe has Less and Lingula.

20

The more common site for inhaled foreign bodies is...

the right lung bc the right main stem bronchus is wider and more vertical than the left.

21

Aspiration while upright ends up in the...

lower portion of the right inferior lobe.

22

Aspiration while supine ends up in the...

superior portion of the right inferior lobe.

23

The relation of the pulmonary artery to the bronchus at each lung hilus is described by...

RALS - Right Anterior; Left Superior.

24

Structures perforating the diaphragm:

-At T8: IVC -At T10: esophagus, vagus -At T12: aorta, thoracic duct, azygous vein

25

The diaphragm is innervated by...

C3, 4 and 5 (phrenic nerve).

26

Pain from diaphragm irritation can be referred to..

the shoulder (C5) or the trapezius ridge (C3, 4).

27

Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV)

air that can still be breathed in after normal inspiration

28

Tidal Volume (TV)

air that moves into the lung with each quiet inspiration (about 500 mL)

29

Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV)

air that can still be breathed out after normal expiration

30

Residual Volume (RV)

air in lung after maximal expiration; cannot be measured on spirometry