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Flashcards in Cardiovascular - First Aid Deck (359)
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1

The truncus arteriosus gives rise to...

the ascending aorta and pulmonary trunk.

2

The bulbus cordis gives rise to...

outflow track of left and right atria.

3

The primitive atria gives rise to...

the trabeculated part of left and right atria.

4

The primitive ventricle gives rise to...

the trabeculated part of the left and right ventricles.

5

The primitive pulmnoary vein gives rise to...

the smooth part of the left atrium.

6

The left horn of the sinus venous gives rise to the...

coronary sinus.

7

The right horn of the sinus venous gives rise to...

the smooth part of the right atrium.

8

The right common cardinal vein and right anterior cardinal vein give rise to...

the SVC.

9

In the vertebrate embryo, the heart is...

the first functional organ and it beats spontaneously by week 4.

10

In week 4 of gestation, the primitive heart tube will...

loop to establish left-right polarity.

11

A defect in left-right dynein can lead to..

dextrocardia (as seen in Kartagener).

12

The foramen ovale closes soon after....

birth due to increased LA pressure.

13

A patent foramen ovale is caused by...

failure of the septum primum and septum secundum to fuse after birth; most left untreated.

14

Patent foramen ovale can lead to...

paradoxical emboli (venous thromboemboli that enter the systemic arterial circulation).

15

Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD) most commonly occurs in..

the membranous septum.

16

Babies with VSD are...

acyanotic at birth due to left to right shunt.

17

Outflow tract is formed when truncus arteriosus rotates and neural crest and endocardial cell migrations lead to...

truncal and bulbar ridges that spiral and fuse to form the aorticopulmonary septum.

18

Conotruncal abnormalities include:

1. transposition of the great vessels 2. tetralogy of fallot 3. persistent truncus arteriosus

19

The aortic and pulmonary valves are derived from...

endocardial cushions of the outflow tract.

20

The mitral and tricuspid valves are derived from...

fused endocardial cushions of the AV canal.

21

Fetal erythropoesis occurs in:

1. Yolk Sac (3-8 wks) 2. Liver (6 wks - birth) 3. Spleen (10-28 wks) 4. Bone marrow (18 wks to adult)

22

Fetal Hb (HbF)

alpha2gamma2

23

Adult Hb (HbA)

alpha2beta2

24

HbF has higher affinity for oxygen due to...

less avid binding of 2,3-BPG. This allows HbF to extract oxygen from maternal Hb across the placenta.

25

Highest concentration of O2 in the fetal circulation is in...

the umbilical vein. PO2 = 30 mmHg 80% saturated w/ O2

26

Blood entering the fetus through the umbilical vein is conducted via the...

ductus venosus into the IVC to bypass the hepatic circulation.

27

Most highly oxygenated blood reaching the heart via the IVC is...

diverted through the foramen ovale and pumped out the aorta to teh head and body.

28

Deoxygenated blood entering the RA from the SVC goes:

RA --> RV --> main PA --> PDA --> descending aorta

29

PDA is kept open in the fetal period due to...

high fetal pulmonary artery resistance due partly to low O2 tension.

30

At birth, when the infant takes their first breath...

decreased resistance in the pulmonary circulation causes increased left atrial pressure vs. right atrial pressure clossing the foramen ovale.