-carries O2 to tissues and CO2 to lungs -anucleate, biconcave -large surface area to volume ratio for rapid gas exchange -life span = 120 days -uses glucose for energy
The membrane of erythrocytes contains...
chloride-HCO3- antiporter which allows RBCs to export HCO3- and transport CO2 from the periphery to the lungs for excretion.
A reticulocyte is...
an immature erythrocyte; a marker of erythroid proliferation.
Platelet (thrombocyte) features
-invovled in primary hemostasis -small cytoplasmic fragment derived from megakaryocytes -life span = 8-10 days
When a platelet is activated by endothelial injury, it will...
aggregate with other platelets and interact with fibrinogen to form a platelet plug.
dens granules (ADP and calcium) and alpha granules (vWF and fibrinogen).
Thrombocytopenia or decreased platelet function results in...
Leukocytes are divided into...
granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils) and mononuclear cells (monocytes and lymphocytes).
Normal Leukocyte level
WBC differential from highest to lowest
Neutrophils Like Making Everything Better Neutrophils (54-62%) Lymphocytes (25-33%) Monocytes (3-7%) Eosinophils (1-3%) Basophils (0-.75%)
an acute inflammatory response cell seen in bacterial infections. -phagocytic -multilobed
Small neutrophils with more numerous specific granules contain...
ALP, collagenase, lysozyme and lactoferrin.
Larger neutrophils with less numerous azurophilic granules contain...
proteinases, acid phophatase, myeloperoxidase and beta-glucoronidase.
Hypersegmented PMNs (5 or more lobes) are seen in...
vitamin B12/folate deficiency.
Increased band cells (immature neutrophils) reflect states of...
myeloid proliferation (bacterial infections, CML).
Monocytes differentiate into...
macrophages in tissues.
-large, kidney-shpaed nucleus -"frosted glass" cytoplasm
Macrophages act to...
phagocytose bacteria, cellular debris and senescent RBCs and scavenge damaged cells and tissue.
Macrophages are activated from monocytes via...
Macrophages can function as...
antigen presenting cells via MHC II.
Surface marker for macrophages
Macrophages are an important component of...
Eosinophils defend against...
helminthic infections (w/ major basic protein).
-bilobate nucleus -packed with large eosinophilic granules -highly phagocytic for Ag-Ab complexes
histaminase and arylsulfatase (these help limit rxn following mast cell degranulation).
Causes of eosinophilia
NAACP N: neoplasia A: asthma A: allergies C: CT disorders P: parasites