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Flashcards in Antimicrobials - First Aid Deck (198)
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1
Q
Penicillin G and V (prototype Beta-lactams) MOA
A
Bind penicillin-binding proteins to block transpeptidase cross-linking of peptidoglycan.

They also activate autolytic enzymes.
2
Q
Penicillin G and V Use
A
-mostly for gram-positive organisms
-also for N. meningitidis and T. pallidum
3
Q
Penicillin G, V are bactericidal for...
A
gram-positive cocci and rods, gram-negative cocci and spirochetes.
4
Q
Toxicity of Penicillin G, V
A
HSRs and hemolytic anemia
5
Q
Resistance to Penicillin G, V
A
penicillinase in bacteria (a type of beta-lactamase) cleaves the beta-lactam ring
6
Q
Ampicillin/Amoxicillin MOA
A
same as penicillin
7
Q
Ampicillin/Amoxicillin Use
A
extended spectrum penicillins
-H. influenzae
-E. coli
-Listeria
-Proteus
-Salmonella
-Shigella
-enterococci
8
Q
Ampicillin/Amoxicillin Toxicity
A
-HSRs
-rash
-pseudomembranous colitis
9
Q
Ampicillin/Amoxicillin Resistance
A
-penicillinase
10
Q
Oxacillin, Nafcillin, Dicloxacillin MOA
A
same as penicillin; penicillinase resistant because bulky R group blocks access of beta-lactamase
11
Q
Oxacillin, Nafcillin, Dicloxacillin Use
A
S. aureus (narrow spectrum)
12
Q
Oxacillin, Nafcillin, Dicloxacillin Toxicity
A
HSRs, interstitial nephritis
13
Q
MRSA is resistant because of....
A
altered PBP target site.
14
Q
Ticarcillin, Piperacillin MOA
A
same as penicillin
15
Q
Ticarcillin, Piperacillin Use
A
extended spectrum; Pseudomonas and gram-negative rods
16
Q
Beta-lactamse inhibitors are often...
A
added to penicillin antibiotics to protect the antibiotic from destruction by beta-lactamase.

(Clavulanic Acid, Sulbactam, Tazobactam)
17
Q
Cephalosporins MOA
A
Beta-lactam drugs that inhibit cell wall synthesis but are less suceptible to penicillinases; bactericidal
18
Q
Organisms typically not covered by cephalosporins are...
A
LAME:
-Listeria
-Atypicals
-MRSA
-Enterococci

(Exception: ceftaroline covers MRSA)
19
Q
1st generation Cephalosporins Use
A
Cefazolin, Cephalexin
-gram positive cocci
-Proteus
-E. coli
-Klebsiella
20
Q
Cefazolin is used prior to...
A
surgery to prevent S. aureus wound infections.
21
Q
2nd generation Cephalosposrins Use
A
Cefoxitin, Cefaclor, Cefuroxime
-gram positive cocci
-H. influenza
-Enterobacter
-Neisseria
-Proteus
-E. coli
-Klebsiella
-Serratia
22
Q
3rd genreation Cephalosporins Use
A
Ceftriaxone, Cefotaxime, Ceftazidime
-serious gram negative infections resistant to other beta-lactams
(Ceftriaxone for Neisseria and Ceftazidime for Pseudomonas)
23
Q
4th generation Cephalosporins Use
A
Cefepime
-increased activity against pseudomonas and gram-positives
24
Q
5th generation Cephalosporins Use
A
Ceftaroline
-broad gram positive and negative coverage
-including MRSA
-does NOT cover pseudomonas
25
Q
Cephalosporins toxicity
A
-HSRs
-vitamin K deficiency
-increased nephrotoxicity of aminoglycosides
26
Q
Aztreonam MOA
A
a monobactam; resistant to beta-lactamases; prevents peptidoglycan cross-linking by binding to PBP3
27
Q
Aztreonam Use
A
gram-negative rods only; for penicillin allergic pts and those with renal insufficiency who cannot tolerate aminoglycosides
28
Q
Carbapenems (4)
A
1. Imipenem
2. Meropenem
3. Ertapenem
4. Doripenem
29
Q
Carpabenem (Imipenem) MOA
A
broad-spectrum, beta-lactamase reistant; always admisistered with Cilastatin (inhibitor of renal dehydropeptidase I) to decrease inactivation of the drug in the renal tubules
30
Q
Clinical use of carbapenems
A
-gram positive cocci
-gram negative rods
-anaerobes
31
Q
Toxicity
A
GI distress, rash, CNS toxicity (seizures) - limits use

(Meropenem has decreased risk of seizures)
32
Q
Vancomycin MOA
A
inhibits cell wall peptidoglycan formation by binding D-ala-D-ala portion of cell wall precurors; bactericidal
33
Q
Use of Vancomycin
A
gram positive only (serious, multidrug resistant organisms including MRSA, enterococci and C. diff)
34
Q
Toxicity of Vancomycin
A
-Red Man Syndrome
-Nephrotoxicity
-Ototoxicity
-Thrombophlebitis
35
Q
Mechanism of resistance to Vancomycin
A
-amino acid modification of D-ala-D-ala to D-ala-D-lac
36
Q
Protein synthesis inhibitors specifically target...
A
the smaller bacterial ribosome (70S (30S+50S)) leaving the human ribosome (80S) unaffected.
37
Q
30S Inhibitors
A
Aminoglycosides (bactericidal)
Tetracyclines (bacteriostatic)
38
Q
50S Inhibitors
A
Chloramphenicol, Clindamycin (bacteriostatic)
Erythromycin (macrolides - bacteriostatic)
Linezolid
39
Q
Aminoglycosides (5)
A
1. Gentamicin
2. Neomycin
3. Amikacin
4. Tobramycin
5. Streptomycin
40
Q
Aminoglycosides MOA
A
inhibit formation of initiation complex and cause misreading of mRNA; also block translocation
41
Q
Aminoglycosides are ineffective against...
A
anaerobes bc they require O2 for uptake.
42
Q
Aminoglycosides Use
A
-severe gram-negative rod infections
-neomycin for bowel surgery
43
Q
Aminoglycosides Toxicity
A
-Nephrotoxicity (esp. with cephalosporins)
-Neuromuscular blockade
-Ototoxicity (esp. with loop diuretics)
-Teratogen
44
Q
Aminoglycosides resistance
A
bacterial transferase enyzmes inactivate the drug by acetylation, phosphorylation or adenylation
45
Q
Tetracyclines (3)
A
1. Tetracycline
2. Doxycycline
3. Minocycline
46
Q
MOA of Tetracyclines
A
bind to 30S and prevent attachment of aminoacyl-tRNA
47
Q
Doxycycline is eliminated...
A
fecally and can be used in pts with renal failure.
48
Q
Tetracyclines should not be taken with...
A
milk, antacids or iron-containing preps because divalent cations inhibit its absorption in the gut.
49
Q
Clinical use of tetracyclines
A
-Borrelia
-M. pneumoniae
-Rickettsia and Chlamydia (bc it can accumulate intracellularly)
50
Q
Toxicity of Tetracycline
A
-GI
-discoloration of teeth-
-inhibition of bone growth
-photosensitivity

(contraindicated in pregnancy)
51
Q
Resistance to Tetracycline
A
decreased uptake or increased efflux out of bacterial cells by plasmid-encoded transport pumps
52
Q
Macrolides (3)
A
1. Azithromycin
2. Clarithromycine
3. Erythromycine
53
Q
Macrolides MOA
A
inhibit protein synthesis by blocking translocation; binds to the 23S rRNA of the 50S ribosomal subunit
54
Q
Macrolides Use
A
-atypical pneumonias
-STDs (Chlamydia)
-gram-positive cocci (strep infxns in pts allergic to penicillin)
55
Q
Toxicity of Macrolides
A
-GI motility issues
-Arrhythmia (prolonged QT)
-acute cholestatic hepatitis
-rash
-eosinophilia
56
Q
Macrolides increase the concentration of...
A
theophyllines and oral anticoagulants.
57
Q
Resistance to Macrolides
A
methylation of 23S rRNA binding site prevents binding of drug
58
Q
Chloramphenicol Mechanism
A
blocks peptidyltransferase at 50S ribosomal subunit; bacteriostatic
59
Q
Chloramphenicol Use
A
Meningitis
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
60
Q
Toxicity of Chloramphenicol
A
-anemia (dose dependent)
-aplastic anemia (dose independent)
-gray baby syndrome
61
Q
Chloramphenicol causes gray baby syndrome in premature infants because...
A
they lack liver UDP-glucuronyl transferase.
62
Q
Chloramphenicol resistance
A
plasmid-encoded acetyltransferase inactivates the drug
63
Q
Clindamycin MOA
A
blocks peptide transfer (translocation) at 50S ribosomal subunit; bacteriostatic
64
Q
Clindamycin Use
A
-anaerobic infxns (Bacteroides, C. perfringens) in aspiration pneumonia
-lung abscesses
-oral infxns
-Group A Strep
65
Q
Clindamycin Toxicity
A
-pseudomembranous colitis
-fever
-diarrhea
66
Q
Treat anaerobes above the diaphragm with...
A
Clindamycin and below the diaphragm with Metronidazole.
67
Q
Sulfonamides (3)
A
1. Sulfamethoxazole (SMX)
2. Sulfisoxazole
3. Sulfadiazine
68
Q
Sulfonamides MOA
A
-inhibits folate synthesis
-para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) antimetabolites inhibit dihydropteroate synthase; bacteriostatic
69
Q
Sulfonamides Use
A
-gram positive
-gram negative
-Nocardia
-Chlamydia
-simple UTI
70
Q
Toxicity of Sulfonamides
A
-HSRs
-hemolysis if G6PD deficient
-tubulointerstitial nephritis
-photosensitivity
-kernicterus in infants
-displaces other drugs from albumin (warfarin)
71
Q
Resistance to Sulfonamides
A
-altered enzyme (bacterial dihydropteroate synthase)
-decreased uptake
-increased PABA synthesis
72
Q
Trimethoprim MOA
A
inhibits bacterial dihydrofolate reductase; bacteriostatic
73
Q
Trimethoprim Use
A
in combo with sulfonamides causing sequential block of folate synthesis; UTIs, Shigella, Salmonella, Pneumocystis jirovecii, pneumonia tx/prophylasis, toxoplasmosis prophylaxis
74
Q
Trimethoprim Toxicity
A
-megaloblastic anemia
-leukopenia
-granulocytopenia
75
Q
Fluoroquinolones (9)
A
1. Ciprofloxacin
2. Norofloxacin
3. Levofloxacin
4. Ofloxacin
5. Sparfloxacin
6. Moxifloxacin
7. Gemifloxacin
8. Enoxacin
10. Nalidixic Acid (a quinolone)
76
Q
MOA of Fluoroquinolones
A
inhibit DNA gyrase (topoisomerase II) and topoisomerase IV; bactericidal
77
Q
Use of Fluoroquinolones
A
gram-negative rods of urinary and GI tracts (including pseudomonas), Neisseria
78
Q
Fluoroquinolones Toxicity
A
-superinfections
-tendonitis
-tendon rupture (in people over 60 and people taking prednisone)
-leg cramps
-QT prolonagation
79
Q
Fluoroquinolones are contraindicated in...
A
pregnant women, nursing mothers, and children under 18 due to risk of cartilage defect.
80
Q
Resistance to Fluoroquinolones
A
chromosome-encoded mutation in DNA gyrase, plasma-mediated reissitance, efflux pumps
81
Q
Metronidazole MOA
A
forms free radical toxic metabolites in the bacterial cell taht damage DNA; bactericidal; antiprotozoal
82
Q
Metronidazole Use
A
Giardia
Entamoeba
Trichomonas
Gardnerella
Anaerobes
H. pylori (w/ a proton pump inhibitor and clarithromycin)
83
Q
Metronidazole Toxicity
A
Disulfiram like rxn (flushing, tachycardia, hyoptension)
84
Q
Mycobacterium tuberculosis prophylaxis
A
Isoniazid
85
Q
Mycobacterium tuberculosis treatment
A
Rifampin
Isoniazid
Pyrazinamide
Ethambutol
86
Q
Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare prophylaxis
A
Azithromycin
Rifabutin
87
Q
Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare treatment
A
-more drug resistant than M. tuberculosis
-Azithromycin or Clarithromycin + Ethambutol
88
Q
Mycobacterium leprae treatment
A
long-term treatment with dapsone and rifampin for tuberculoid form; add clofazimine for lepromatous form
89
Q
Isoniazid MOA
A
decreased synthesis of mycolic acids; bacterial catalase-peroxidase needed to convert INH to the active metabolite
90
Q
Isoniazid Use
A
M. tuberculosis
91
Q
Toxicity of Isoniazid
A
-neurotoxicity, hepatotoxicity
(B6 can prevent the neurotoxicity)
92
Q
Rifampin, Rifabutin MOA
A
inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase
93
Q
Use of Rifampin, Rifabutin Use
A
M. tuberculosis; delays resistance to dapsone when used for leprosy; used for meningococcal prophylaxis and prophylaxis in contacts of kids w/ Hib
94
Q
Toxicity of Rifampin, Rifabutin
A
-orange body fluids
-hepatotoxicity/drug interaction
(Rifabutin favored in pts with HIV due to less CYP450 stimulation.)
95
Q
Pyrazinamide MOA
A
thought to acidify intracellular environment via conversion to pyrazinoic acid; effective in acidic pH of phagolysosomes where TB engulfed by macrophages is found
96
Q
Pyrazinamide Use
A
M. tuberculosis
97
Q
Toxicity of Pyrazinamide
A
Hyperuricemia, hepatotoxicity
98
Q
Ethambutol MOA
A
decreased carbohydrate polymerization of mycobacterium cell wall by blocking arabinosyltransferase
99
Q
Ethambutol Use
A
M. tuberculosis
100
Q
Ethambutol toxicity
A
optic neuropathy (red-green color blindness)
101
Q
Prophylaxis for endocarditis with surgical or dental procedures
A
Penicillins
102
Q
Prophylaxis for gonorrhea
A
Ceftriaxone
103
Q
Prophylaxis for recurrent UTIs
A
TMP-SMX
104
Q
Prophylaxis for meningococcal infxn
A
Ciprofloxacin
(Rifampin for children)
105
Q
Prophylaxis for pregnant women carrying group B strep
A
Ampicillin
106
Q
Prevention of gonococcal or chlamydial conjunctivitis in the newborn
A
erythromycin ointment
107
Q
Prevention of postsurgical infxn due to S. aureus
A
Cefazolin
108
Q
Prophylaxis of strep pharyngitis in a child with prior rheumatic fever
A
oral penicillin
109
Q
Prophylaxis for syphilis
A
benzathine penicillin G
110
Q
Prophylaxis of Pneumocystis pneumonia in HIV pts with CD4
A
TMP-SMX
111
Q
Prophylaxis of Pneumocystis pneumonia and toxoplasmosis in HIV pts with CD4
A
TMP-SMX
112
Q
Prophylaxis of M. avium in HIV pts with CD4
A
Azithromycin
113
Q
MRSA treatments
A
-vancomycin
-daptomycin
-linezolid (can cause serotonin syndrome)
-tigecycline
-ceftaroline
114
Q
VRE treatments
A
-linezolid
-streptogramins (quinupristin/dalfopristin)
115
Q
Amphotericin B MOA
A
binds ergosterol (unique to fungi); forms membrane pores that allows leakage of electrolytes
116
Q
Amphotericin B Use
A
-Cryptococcus
-Blastomyces
-Coccidioides
-Histoplasma
-Candida
-Mucor

(give supplemental K+ and Mg2+ bc of altered renal tubule permeability)
117
Q
Amphotericin B toxicity
A
-fevers/chills
-nephrotoxicity
-arrhythmias
-anemia
-IV phlebitis
118
Q
Nystatin MOA
A
same as amphotericin B; topical form only!
119
Q
Nystatin Use
A
"swish and swallow" for oral candidiasis; topical for diaper rash or vaginal candidiasis
120
Q
Azoles (6)
A
1. Fluconazole
2. Ketoconazole
3. Clotrimazole
4. Miconazole
5. Itraconazole
6. Voriconazole
121
Q
Azoles MOA
A
inhibit fungal sterol synthesis by inhibiting the CYP450 that converts lanosterol to ergosterol
122
Q
Azoles Use
A
local/less serious systemic mycoses
-Fluconazole for chronic suppression of cryptococcal meningitis in AIDS pts and candidal infections of all types
-Itraconazole for Blasto, Cocci, and Histo
-Clotrimazole/Miconazole for topical fungal infxns
123
Q
Azoles toxicity
A
-testosterone synthesis inhibition (gyencomastia, esp. w/ ketoconazole), liver dysfunction (inhibits CYP450)
124
Q
Flucytosine MOA
A
inhibits DNA and RNA biosynthesis by conversion to 5-FU by cytosine deaminase
125
Q
Use of Flucytosine
A
systemic funcgal infections (esp. meningitis caused by Crypto) in combo w/ amphotericin B
126
Q
Toxicity of flucytosine
A
bone marrow suppression
127
Q
Echinocandins (3)
A
1. Caspofungin
2. Micafungin
3. Anidulafungin
128
Q
Echinocandins MOA
A
inhibits cell wall synthesis by inhibiting synthesis of beta-glucan
129
Q
Use of Echinocandins
A
invasive aspergillosis, Candida
130
Q
Terbinafine MOA
A
inhibits the fungal enzyme squalene epoxidase
131
Q
Terbinafine Use
A
dermatophytoses (esp onychomycosis)
132
Q
Griseofulvin MOA
A
interferes w/ microtubule fxn; disrupts mitosis; deposits keratin-containing tissues
133
Q
Use of Griseofulvin
A
oral treatment of superficial infections; inhibits growth of dermatophytes (tinea, ringworm)
134
Q
Griseofulvin toxicity
A
teratogenic, carcinogenic, confusion, headaches, increased P450 and warfarin metabolism
135
Q
Toxoplasmosis tx
A
pyrimethamine
136
Q
Trypanosoma brucei tx
A
Suramin and Meelarsoprol
137
Q
T. cruzi tx
A
Nifurtimox
138
Q
Leishmaniasis tx
A
Sodium Stibogluconate
139
Q
Chloroquine MOA
A
blocks detoxification of heme into hemozoin; heme accumulates and is toxic to plasmodia
140
Q
Chloroquine Use
A
treatment of plasmodial species other than P. falciparum (resistance to P. falciparum due to membrane pump that decreases intracellular concentration of the drug)
141
Q
Treat P. falciparum with...
A
artemether/lumefantrine or atovaquone/proguanil.
142
Q
For life-threatening malaria, use...
A
quinidine or artesunate.
143
Q
Toxicity of chloroquine
A
retinopathy
pruritis
144
Q
Antihelminthic therapy (5)
A
1. Mebendazole
2. Pyrantel pamoate
3. Ivermectin
4. Diethylcarbamazine
5. Praziquantel

(immobilize helminths)
145
Q
Treatment for flukes (trematodes) such as Schistosoma
A
Praziquantel
146
Q
Zanamivir, Oseltamivir MOA
A
inhibit influenza neuraminidase leading to decreased release of progeny virus
147
Q
Zanamivir, Oseltamivir Use
A
treatment/prevention of influenza A and B
148
Q
Ribavirin MOA
A
inhibits synthesis of guanine nucleotides by competitively inhibiting inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase
149
Q
Ribavirin Use
A
RSV, chronic hep C
150
Q
Ribavirin toxicity
A
-hemolytic anemia
-severe teratogen
151
Q
Acyclovir, Famciclovir, Valacyclovir MOA
A
guanosine analog; triphosphate formed by cellular enzymes; preferentially inhibits DNA polymerase by chain termination
152
Q
Acyclovir, Famciclovir and Valacyclovir have few adverse effects because...
A
they are monophosphorylated by HSV/VZV thymidine kinase and not phosphorylated in uninfected cells.
153
Q
Use of Acyclovir, Famciclovir and Valacyclovir
A
HSV and VZV
-HSV induced mucocutaneous/genital lesions and encephalitis
-prophylaxis in immunocompromised
-
154
Q
Acyclovir, Famciclovir and Valacyclovir have no effect on..
A
latent forms of HSV and VZV.
155
Q
Toxicity of Acyclovir, Famciclovir and Valacyclovir
A
obstructive crystalline nephropathy and acute renal failure
156
Q
Mechanism of resistance to Acyclovir, Famciclovir and Valacyclovir
A
mutated viral thymidine kinase
157
Q
Ganciclovir MOA
A
5' monophosphate formed by a CMV viral kinase; guanosine analog; triphosphate formed by cellular kinases; preferentially inhibits viral DNA polymerase
158
Q
Use of Ganciclovir
A
CMV, esp. in immunocompromised pts
159
Q
Toxicity of Ganciclovir
A
leukopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, renal toxicity
160
Q
Resistance to Ganciclovir
A
mutated CMV DNA polymerase or lack of viral kinase
161
Q
Foscarnet MOA
A
viral DNA polymerase inhibitor that binds to the pyrophosphate-binding site of the enzyme; does not require activation by viral kinase
162
Q
Foscarnet Use
A
CMV retinitis in immunocompromised pts when ganciclovir fails; acyclovir resistant HSV
163
Q
Toxicity of Foscarnet
A
Nephrotoxicity
164
Q
Resistance to Foscarnet
A
mutated DNA polymerase
165
Q
Cidofovir MOA
A
preferentially inhibits viral DNA polymerase; does not require phosphorylation by viral kinase
166
Q
Use of Cidofovir
A
CMV retinitis in immunocompromised pts; acyclovir-resistant HSV
167
Q
Toxicity of Cidofovir
A
nephrotoxicity (administer with probenecid and IV saline to decrease toxicity)
168
Q
Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) is initiated when...
A
pts present with an AIDs defining illness, low CD4 cell counts (
169
Q
HAART regimen consists of..
A
3 drugs to preven resistance:
-2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor OR 1 protease inhibitor OR 1 integrase inhibitor
170
Q
Protease Inhibitors (7)
A
1. Atazanavir
2. Darunavir
3. Fosamprenavir
4. Indinavir
5. Lopinavir
6. Ritonavir
7. Saquinavir

(Navir tease a protease)
171
Q
The assembly of HIV virions depends on...
A
HIV-1 protease (pol gene) which cleaves the polypeptide products of HIV mRNA into their functional parts. Thus, protease inhibitors prevent maturation of new viruses.
172
Q
Ritonavir can boost...
A
other drug concentrations by inhibiting CYP450.
173
Q
Toxicity of protease inhibitors
A
hyperglycemia, lipodystrophy, nephropathy, hematuria
174
Q
NRTIs (nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors) (7)
A
1. Abacavir
2. Didanosine
3. Emtricitabine
4. Lamivudine
5. Stavudine
6. Tenofovir
7. Zidovudine

(Have you dined (vudine) w/ my nuclear (nucleoside) family?)
175
Q
NRTIs MOA
A
competitively inhibit nucleotide binding to reverse transcriptase and terminate the DNA chain
176
Q
NRTIs need to be...
A
phosphorylated to be active (except for tenofovir which is a nucleotide).
177
Q
Zidovudine is used for...
A
general prophylaxis and during pregnancy to decrease risk of fetal transmission.
178
Q
Toxicity of NRTIs
A
bone marrow suppression (give G-CSF and EPO), neuropathy, lactic acidosis, anemia (ZDV), pancreatitis (didanosine)
179
Q
NNRTIs (non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors) (3)
A
1. Efavirenz
2. Nevirapine
3. Delavirdine
180
Q
NNRTIs MOA
A
bind to reverse transcriptase at a site different from NRTIs; do not require phosphorylation for activation
181
Q
Toxicity of NNRTIs
A
-rash, hepatotoxicity
-vivid dreams and CNS symptoms (Efavirenz)
182
Q
Delavirdine and Efavirenz are contraindicated in...
A
pregnancy.
183
Q
Raltegravir MOA
A
inhibits HIV genome integration into host cell chromosome by reversibly inhibiting HIV integrase
184
Q
Raltegravir Toxicity
A
hypercholesterolemia
185
Q
Fusion inhibitors
A
Enfuvirtide
Maraviroc
186
Q
Enfuvirtide MOA
A
binds gp41, inhibiting viral entry
187
Q
Maraviroc MOA
A
binds CCR-5 on surface of T cells/monocytes inhibiting interaction with gp120
188
Q
Interferons MOA
A
glycoproteins normally synthesized by virus-infected cells, exhibiting a wide range of antiviral and antitumoral properties
189
Q
Use of INF-alpha
A
chronic Hep B/C, Kaposi sarcoma, hairy cell leukemia, condyloma acuminatum, RCC and malignant melanoma
190
Q
Use of IFN-beta
A
MS
191
Q
Use of IFN-gamma
A
CGD
192
Q
Toxicity of interferons
A
neutropenia
myopathy
193
Q
Antibiotics to avoid in pregnancy
A
SAFe Children Take Really Good Care
Sulfonamides
Aminoglycosides
Fluoroquinolones
Clarithromycin
Tetracyclines
Ribavirin
Griseofulvin
Chloramphenicol
194
Q
Sulfonamides teratogenecity
A
Kernicterus
195
Q
Aminoglycosides teratogenecity
A
ototoxicity
196
Q
Fluoroquinolones teratogenecity
A
cartilage damage
197
Q
Clarithromycin teratogenecity
A
embryotoxic
198
Q
Tetracyclines teratogenecity
A
discolored teeth, inhibition of bone growth