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Flashcards in Renal - First Aid Deck (220)
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1

Pronephros

week 4 kidney then degenerates

2

Mesonephros

functions as interim kidney for 1st trimester and later contributes to the male genital system

3

Metanephros

permanent; first appears in the 5th week of gestation

4

Ureteric bud

derived from the caudal end of the mesonephric duct; gives rise to the ureter, pelvises, calyces and collecting ducts; fully canalized by 10th week

5

Metanephric mesenchyme

ureteric bud interacts with this tissue inducing differentiation and formation of the glomerulus through to the distal convoluted tubule

6

The ureteropelvic junction is the...

last area to canalize and the most common site of obstruction in the fetus.

7

Potter Sequence is...

oligohydramnios leading to compression of the developing fetus leading to limb deformities and facial anomalies (low set ears and retrognathia) and compression of the chest leading to pulmonary hypoplasia.

8

Causes of Potter sequence include...

ARPKD, posterior urethral valves and bilateral renal agenesis. (babies who can't Pee develop Potter)

9

POTTER syndrome is associated with:

Pulmonary hypoplasia Oligohydramnios (trigger) Twisted face Twisted skin Extremity defects Renal failure (in utero)

10

Horseshoe kidney

the inferior poles of both kidneys fuse and as they ascend from the pelvis during fetal development, they get trapped under the inferior mesenteric artery and remain low in the abdomen

11

Horseshoe kidneys have increased risk for...

ureteropelvic junction obstruction, hydronephrosis, renal stones and renal cancer (Wilms tumor).

12

Horseshoe kidneys are associated with...

Turner syndrome.

13

Multicystic dysplastic kidney is due to....

abnormal interaction between the ureteric bud and metanephric mesenchyme. This leads to a nonfunctional kidney consisting of cysts and CT.

14

If multicystic dysplastic kidney is unilateral (most common), then it is generally...

asymptomatic with compensatory hypertrophy of the contralateral kidney.

15

The kidney taken for donor transplantation is...

the left one becasue it has a longer renal vein.

16

The ureters pass....

under the uterine artery and under the ductus deferens.

17

The ureters may be damaged by gynecologic procedures involving...

ligation of the uterine vessels leading to ureteral obstruction or leak.

18

Plasma volume is measured by...

radiolabeled albumin.

19

Extracellular volume is measured by...

inulin.

20

Plasma osmolarity =

290 mOsm/L.

21

The glomerular filtration barrier is composed of...

1. Fenestrated capillary endothelium (size barrier) 2. Fused basement membrane with heparan sulfate (negative charge barrier) 3. Epithelial layer consisting of podocyte foot processes

22

The charge barrier of the glomerular filtration barrier is lost in...

nephrotic syndrome, resulting in albuminuria, hypoproteinemia, generalized edema and hyperlipidemia.

23

Renal Clearance Equation

Cx = UxV/P

24

If Cx

net tubular reabsorption of X.

25

If Cx > GFR, then there is...

net tubular secretion of X.

26

To calculate GFR, use...

inulin because it is freely filtered and is neither secreted or reabsorbed.

27

Normal GFR is about...

100 mL/min.

28

Creatine clearance is an approximate measure of...

GFR but it slightly overestimates GFR becasue creatine is moderately secreted by the renal tubules.

29

Effective renal plasma flow (ERFP) can be estimated using...

para-aminohippuric acid (PAH) clearance because it is both filtered and actively secreted in the proximal tubule. Nearly all PAH entering the kidney is excreted.

30

ERPF underestimates...

the true RPF by about 10%.