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Flashcards in Microbiology Parasitology - First Aid Deck (97)
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1
Q
Giardia lamblia disease
A
Giardiasis: bloating, flatulence, foul-smelling, fatty diarrhea (often seen in campers/hikers)
2
Q
Transmission of Giardia lamblia
A
cysts in water
3
Q
Diagnosis of Giardia
A
trophozoites or cysts in stool
4
Q
Treatment for Giardia
A
Metronidazole
5
Q
Entamoeba histolytica disease
A
Amebiasis: bloody diarrhea, liver abscess (w/ "anchovy paste" exudate), RUQ pain
6
Q
Transmission of Entamoeba histolytica
A
Cysts in the water
7
Q
Diagonsis of Entamoeba histolytica
A
serology and trophozoites (w/ RBCs in cytoplasm) or cysts (w/ up to 4 nuclei) in stool
8
Q
Treatment of Entamoeba histolytica
A
Metronidazole

(Iodoquinol for asymptomatic cyst passers)
9
Q
Cryptosporidium diesease
A
severe diarrhea in AIDS
mild disease in immunocompromised
10
Q
Cryptosporidium transmission
A
oocysts in water
11
Q
Diagnosis of Cryptosporidium
A
oocysts on acid-fast stain
12
Q
Treatment of Cryptosporidium
A
prevention by filtering city water
Nitazoxanide in immunocompromised hosts
13
Q
Protozoa that cause GI infections (3)
A
1. Giardia lamblia
2. Entamoeba histolytica
3. Cryptosporidium
14
Q
Protozoa that cause CNS infections (3)
A
1. Toxoplasma gondii
2. Naegleria fowleri
3. Trpanosoma brucei
15
Q
Toxoplasma gondii disease
A
brain abcesses in HIV (ring-enhancing lesions on CT/MRI)
congenital toxoplasmosis (triad of chorioretinitis, hydrocephalus and intracranial calcifications)
16
Q
Transmission of Toxoplasma gondii
A
cysts in meat or oocysts in cat feces; crosses placenta
17
Q
Diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii
A
serology, biopys (tachyzoite)
18
Q
Treatment for Toxoplasma gondii
A
Sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine
19
Q
Naegleria fowleri disease
A
Rapidly fatal meningoencephalitis
20
Q
Trasmission of Naegleria fowleri
A
swimming in freshwater lakes; enters via cribiform plate
21
Q
Diagnosis of Naegleria fowleri
A
amoebas in spinal fluid
22
Q
Treatment of Naegleria fowleri
A
Amphotericin B
23
Q
Trypanosoma brucei disease
A
African sleeping sickness: enlarged LNs, recurring fever, somnolence, coma
24
Q
Transmission of Trypanosoma brucei
A
tsetse fly (painful bite)
25
Q
Diagnosis of Trypanosoma brucei
A
blood smear
26
Q
Treatment for Trypanosoma brucei
A
Suramin for blood-borne disease
Melarsoprol for CNS penetration
27
Q
Protozoa that cause hematologic infections
A
1. Plasmodium
2. Babesia
28
Q
Plasmodium Disease
A
fever, HA, anemia, splenomegaly
29
Q
P. vivax/ovale
A
48 hour cycle (fevers on first and third days)
dormant form (hypnozoite) in liver
30
Q
P. falciparum
A
severe
irregular fever patterns
parasitized RBCs occlude capillaries in brain (cerebral malaria), kidneys and lungs
31
Q
P. malariae
A
72 hr cycle (quartan)
32
Q
Transmission of Plasmodium
A
mosquito
33
Q
Diagnosis of Plasmodium
A
-blood smear, trophozoite ring form within RBC
-schizont containing merozoites
34
Q
Treatment of Plasmodium
A
Begin with chloroquine which blocks Plasmodium heme polymerase; if resistant, use mefloquine or atovaquone/proguanil.
35
Q
If Plasmodium infxn is life-threatening, treat with...
A
IV quinidine (check for G6PD deficiency).
36
Q
For vivax/ovale treatment, add...
A
primaquine for hypnozoites 9test for G6PD deficiency).
37
Q
Babesia disease
A
Babesisosis: fever and hemolytic anemia; northeast US; asplenia increases risk of disease
38
Q
Transmission of Babesia
A
ixodes tick
39
Q
Diagnosis of Babesia
A
blood smear has ring form and Maltese cross
PCR
40
Q
Treatment of Babesia
A
Atovaquone + Azithromycin
41
Q
Trypanosoma cruzi disease
A
Chagas disease: dilated cardiomyopathy, megacolon, megaesophagus

(South America)
42
Q
Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi
A
Reduviid bug ("kissing bug") feces, deposited in a painless bite
43
Q
Diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi
A
blood smear
44
Q
Treatment for Trypanosoma cruzi
A
Benznidazole
Nifurtimox
45
Q
Leishmania donovani disease
A
visceral leishmaniasis: spiking fevers, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia
46
Q
Transmission of Leishmania donovani
A
sandfly
47
Q
Diagnosis of Leishmania donovani
A
macrophages containing amastigotes
48
Q
Treatment of Leishmania donovani
A
Amphotericin B, sodium stibogluconate
49
Q
Trichomonas vaginalis Disease
A
Vaginitis: foul-smelling, greenish discharge; itching and burning
50
Q
Transmission of Trichomonas vaginalis
A
sexual (cannot exist outside of humans because it cannot form spores)
51
Q
Diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis
A
trophozoites on wet mount
strawberry cervix
52
Q
Treatment of Trichomonas vaginalis
A
Metronidazole for pt and partner
53
Q
Intestinal Nematodes (roundworms)
A
Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm)
Ascaris lumbricoides (giant roundworm)
Strongyloides stercoralis
Ancylostoma duodenale/Necator americanus (hookworms)
54
Q
Transmission of Enterobius vermicularis
A
fecal-oral
55
Q
Enterobius vermicularis disease
A
Intestinal infection causing anal pruritis (diagnosed via scotch tape test)
56
Q
Treatment for Enterobius vermicularis
A
Bendazoles or ppyrantel pamoate
57
Q
Transmission of Ascaris lumbricoides
A
fecal-oral; eggs visible in feces under microscope
58
Q
Disease of Ascaris lumbricoides
A
intestinal infection
59
Q
Treatment for Ascaris lumbricoides
A
Bendazoles or pyrantel pamoate
60
Q
Strongyloides sterocralis transmission
A
larvae in soil penetrate the skin
61
Q
Strongyloides stercoralis disease
A
intestinal infection causing vomiting, diarrhea, epigastric pain
62
Q
Treatment for Strongyloides
A
Ivermectin or albendazole
63
Q
Transmission of Anyclostoma duodenale or Necator americanus
A
larvae penetrate skin
64
Q
Anyclostoma/Necator disease
A
intestinal infection causing anemia by sucking blood from intestinal walls
65
Q
Treatment of Ancylostoma/Necator
A
Bendazoles or pyrantel pamoate
66
Q
Tissue Nematodes
A
Onchocerca volvulus
Loa loa
Wuchereria bancrofti
Toxocara canis
67
Q
Transmission of Onchocerca volvulus
A
female blackfly bite
68
Q
Onchocerca volvulus disease
A
hyperpigmented skinand river blindness; allergic rxn to microfilaria possible
69
Q
Onchocerca volvulus treatment
A
Ivermectin
70
Q
Loa loa transmission
A
deer fly, mango fly, horse fly
71
Q
Loa loa disease
A
swelling in skin, worm in conjunctiva
72
Q
Loa loa treatment
A
Diethylcarbamazine
73
Q
Wuchereria bancrofti transmission
A
female mosquito
74
Q
Wuchereria bancrofti disease
A
blocks lymphatic vessels: elephantiasis: takes 9 months - 1 yr after bite to become symptomatic
75
Q
Treatment for Wuchereria bancrofti
A
Diethylcarbamazine
76
Q
Toxocara canis transmission
A
fecal-oral
77
Q
Toxocara canis disease
A
visceral larva migrans
78
Q
Toxocara canis treatment
A
Albendazole or mebendazole
79
Q
Cestodes (tapeworms)
A
1. Taenia solium
2. Diphyllobothrium latum
3. Echinococcus granulosus
80
Q
Taenia solium transmission
A
ingestion of larvae encysted in undercooked pork or ingestion of eggs
81
Q
Taenia solium disease
A
-intestinal infection (from larvae)
-cysticercosis (from eggs)
-neurocysticercosis (from eggs)
82
Q
Treatment for Taenia solium
A
Praziquantel

Also, albendazole for neurocysticercosis.
83
Q
Diphyllobothrium latum transmission
A
ingestion of larvae from raw freshwater fish
84
Q
Diphyllobothrium latum disease
A
vitamin B12 deficiency (tapeworm competes for B12 in intestine) leading to anemia
85
Q
Treatment for Diphyllobothrium
A
Praziquantel
86
Q
Echinococcus granulosus transmission
A
ingestion of eggs from dog feces
87
Q
Echinococcus granulosus disease
A
Hydatid cysts in liver, causing anaphylaxis if antigens are release (surgeons preinject with ethanol to kill cysts)
88
Q
Treatment for echinococcus
A
Albendazole
89
Q
Trematodes (flukes)
A
1. Schistosoma
2. Clonorchis sinensis
90
Q
Schistosoma transmission
A
snails are host; cercariae penetrate skin of humans
91
Q
Disease from Schistosoma
A
Liver and spleen granulomas, fibrosis and inflammation
92
Q
Chronic infection with schistosoma can lead to...
A
SCC of the bladder.
93
Q
Treatment for schistosoma
A
Praziquantel
94
Q
Clonorchis transmission
A
undercooked fish
95
Q
Clonorchis sinensis disease
A
biliary tract inflammation leading to pigmented gallstones.
96
Q
Clonorchis sinensis is associated with...
A
cholangiocarcinoma.
97
Q
Treatment for Clonorchis
A
Praziquantel