Microbiology Parasitology - First Aid Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Microbiology Parasitology - First Aid Deck (97):
1

Giardia lamblia disease

Giardiasis: bloating, flatulence, foul-smelling, fatty diarrhea (often seen in campers/hikers)

2

Transmission of Giardia lamblia

cysts in water

3

Diagnosis of Giardia

trophozoites or cysts in stool

4

Treatment for Giardia

Metronidazole

5

Entamoeba histolytica disease

Amebiasis: bloody diarrhea, liver abscess (w/ "anchovy paste" exudate), RUQ pain

6

Transmission of Entamoeba histolytica

Cysts in the water

7

Diagonsis of Entamoeba histolytica

serology and trophozoites (w/ RBCs in cytoplasm) or cysts (w/ up to 4 nuclei) in stool

8

Treatment of Entamoeba histolytica

Metronidazole

(Iodoquinol for asymptomatic cyst passers)

9

Cryptosporidium diesease

severe diarrhea in AIDS
mild disease in immunocompromised

10

Cryptosporidium transmission

oocysts in water

11

Diagnosis of Cryptosporidium

oocysts on acid-fast stain

12

Treatment of Cryptosporidium

prevention by filtering city water
Nitazoxanide in immunocompromised hosts

13

Protozoa that cause GI infections (3)

1. Giardia lamblia
2. Entamoeba histolytica
3. Cryptosporidium

14

Protozoa that cause CNS infections (3)

1. Toxoplasma gondii
2. Naegleria fowleri
3. Trpanosoma brucei

15

Toxoplasma gondii disease

brain abcesses in HIV (ring-enhancing lesions on CT/MRI)
congenital toxoplasmosis (triad of chorioretinitis, hydrocephalus and intracranial calcifications)

16

Transmission of Toxoplasma gondii

cysts in meat or oocysts in cat feces; crosses placenta

17

Diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii

serology, biopys (tachyzoite)

18

Treatment for Toxoplasma gondii

Sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine

19

Naegleria fowleri disease

Rapidly fatal meningoencephalitis

20

Trasmission of Naegleria fowleri

swimming in freshwater lakes; enters via cribiform plate

21

Diagnosis of Naegleria fowleri

amoebas in spinal fluid

22

Treatment of Naegleria fowleri

Amphotericin B

23

Trypanosoma brucei disease

African sleeping sickness: enlarged LNs, recurring fever, somnolence, coma

24

Transmission of Trypanosoma brucei

tsetse fly (painful bite)

25

Diagnosis of Trypanosoma brucei

blood smear

26

Treatment for Trypanosoma brucei

Suramin for blood-borne disease
Melarsoprol for CNS penetration

27

Protozoa that cause hematologic infections

1. Plasmodium
2. Babesia

28

Plasmodium Disease

fever, HA, anemia, splenomegaly

29

P. vivax/ovale

48 hour cycle (fevers on first and third days)
dormant form (hypnozoite) in liver

30

P. falciparum

severe
irregular fever patterns
parasitized RBCs occlude capillaries in brain (cerebral malaria), kidneys and lungs

31

P. malariae

72 hr cycle (quartan)

32

Transmission of Plasmodium

mosquito

33

Diagnosis of Plasmodium

-blood smear, trophozoite ring form within RBC
-schizont containing merozoites

34

Treatment of Plasmodium

Begin with chloroquine which blocks Plasmodium heme polymerase; if resistant, use mefloquine or atovaquone/proguanil.

35

If Plasmodium infxn is life-threatening, treat with...

IV quinidine (check for G6PD deficiency).

36

For vivax/ovale treatment, add...

primaquine for hypnozoites 9test for G6PD deficiency).

37

Babesia disease

Babesisosis: fever and hemolytic anemia; northeast US; asplenia increases risk of disease

38

Transmission of Babesia

ixodes tick

39

Diagnosis of Babesia

blood smear has ring form and Maltese cross
PCR

40

Treatment of Babesia

Atovaquone + Azithromycin

41

Trypanosoma cruzi disease

Chagas disease: dilated cardiomyopathy, megacolon, megaesophagus

(South America)

42

Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi

Reduviid bug ("kissing bug") feces, deposited in a painless bite

43

Diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi

blood smear

44

Treatment for Trypanosoma cruzi

Benznidazole
Nifurtimox

45

Leishmania donovani disease

visceral leishmaniasis: spiking fevers, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia

46

Transmission of Leishmania donovani

sandfly

47

Diagnosis of Leishmania donovani

macrophages containing amastigotes

48

Treatment of Leishmania donovani

Amphotericin B, sodium stibogluconate

49

Trichomonas vaginalis Disease

Vaginitis: foul-smelling, greenish discharge; itching and burning

50

Transmission of Trichomonas vaginalis

sexual (cannot exist outside of humans because it cannot form spores)

51

Diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis

trophozoites on wet mount
strawberry cervix

52

Treatment of Trichomonas vaginalis

Metronidazole for pt and partner

53

Intestinal Nematodes (roundworms)

Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm)
Ascaris lumbricoides (giant roundworm)
Strongyloides stercoralis
Ancylostoma duodenale/Necator americanus (hookworms)

54

Transmission of Enterobius vermicularis

fecal-oral

55

Enterobius vermicularis disease

Intestinal infection causing anal pruritis (diagnosed via scotch tape test)

56

Treatment for Enterobius vermicularis

Bendazoles or ppyrantel pamoate

57

Transmission of Ascaris lumbricoides

fecal-oral; eggs visible in feces under microscope

58

Disease of Ascaris lumbricoides

intestinal infection

59

Treatment for Ascaris lumbricoides

Bendazoles or pyrantel pamoate

60

Strongyloides sterocralis transmission

larvae in soil penetrate the skin

61

Strongyloides stercoralis disease

intestinal infection causing vomiting, diarrhea, epigastric pain

62

Treatment for Strongyloides

Ivermectin or albendazole

63

Transmission of Anyclostoma duodenale or Necator americanus

larvae penetrate skin

64

Anyclostoma/Necator disease

intestinal infection causing anemia by sucking blood from intestinal walls

65

Treatment of Ancylostoma/Necator

Bendazoles or pyrantel pamoate

66

Tissue Nematodes

Onchocerca volvulus
Loa loa
Wuchereria bancrofti
Toxocara canis

67

Transmission of Onchocerca volvulus

female blackfly bite

68

Onchocerca volvulus disease

hyperpigmented skinand river blindness; allergic rxn to microfilaria possible

69

Onchocerca volvulus treatment

Ivermectin

70

Loa loa transmission

deer fly, mango fly, horse fly

71

Loa loa disease

swelling in skin, worm in conjunctiva

72

Loa loa treatment

Diethylcarbamazine

73

Wuchereria bancrofti transmission

female mosquito

74

Wuchereria bancrofti disease

blocks lymphatic vessels: elephantiasis: takes 9 months - 1 yr after bite to become symptomatic

75

Treatment for Wuchereria bancrofti

Diethylcarbamazine

76

Toxocara canis transmission

fecal-oral

77

Toxocara canis disease

visceral larva migrans

78

Toxocara canis treatment

Albendazole or mebendazole

79

Cestodes (tapeworms)

1. Taenia solium
2. Diphyllobothrium latum
3. Echinococcus granulosus

80

Taenia solium transmission

ingestion of larvae encysted in undercooked pork or ingestion of eggs

81

Taenia solium disease

-intestinal infection (from larvae)
-cysticercosis (from eggs)
-neurocysticercosis (from eggs)

82

Treatment for Taenia solium

Praziquantel

Also, albendazole for neurocysticercosis.

83

Diphyllobothrium latum transmission

ingestion of larvae from raw freshwater fish

84

Diphyllobothrium latum disease

vitamin B12 deficiency (tapeworm competes for B12 in intestine) leading to anemia

85

Treatment for Diphyllobothrium

Praziquantel

86

Echinococcus granulosus transmission

ingestion of eggs from dog feces

87

Echinococcus granulosus disease

Hydatid cysts in liver, causing anaphylaxis if antigens are release (surgeons preinject with ethanol to kill cysts)

88

Treatment for echinococcus

Albendazole

89

Trematodes (flukes)

1. Schistosoma
2. Clonorchis sinensis

90

Schistosoma transmission

snails are host; cercariae penetrate skin of humans

91

Disease from Schistosoma

Liver and spleen granulomas, fibrosis and inflammation

92

Chronic infection with schistosoma can lead to...

SCC of the bladder.

93

Treatment for schistosoma

Praziquantel

94

Clonorchis transmission

undercooked fish

95

Clonorchis sinensis disease

biliary tract inflammation leading to pigmented gallstones.

96

Clonorchis sinensis is associated with...

cholangiocarcinoma.

97

Treatment for Clonorchis

Praziquantel