Micro Systems - First Aid Flashcards Preview

► Med - Step 1 > Micro Systems - First Aid > Flashcards

Flashcards in Micro Systems - First Aid Deck (98)
Loading flashcards...
1
Q
Dominant flora of the skin
A
S. epidermidis
2
Q
Dominant flora of the nose
A
S. epidermidis; colonized by S. aureus
3
Q
Dominant flora of the oropharynx
A
viridans group strep
4
Q
Dominant flora of the dental plaque
A
S. mutans
5
Q
Dominant flora of the colon
A
B. fragilis > E. coli
6
Q
Dominant flora of the vagina
A
Lactobacillus; colonized by E. coli and group B strep
7
Q
Food poisoning that starts and ends quickly is from...
A
S. aureus or B. cereus.
8
Q
B. cereus source
A
reheated rice
9
Q
C. botulinum source
A
improperly canned foods
10
Q
C. perfringens source
A
reheated meat dishes
11
Q
E. coli O157:H7 source
A
undercooked meat
12
Q
Salmonella source
A
poultry, meat, eggs
13
Q
S. aureus source
A
meats, mayonnaise, custard; preformed toxin
14
Q
V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus source
A
contaminated seafood
15
Q
Bugs that cause bloody diarrhea (7)
A
1. campylobacter
2. E. histolytica
3. EHEC
4. EIEC
5. Salmonella
6. Shigella
7. Yersinia enterocolitica
16
Q
Bugs that cause watery diarrhea (6)
A
1. C. difficile
2. C. perfringens
3. ETEC
4. Protozoa (Giardia, Cryptosporidium)
5. V. cholerae
6. Viruses
17
Q
Common causes of pneumonia in neonates (
A
1. Group B strep
2. E. coli
18
Q
Common causes of pneumonia in children 1 mo - 18 yrs
A
Viruses (RSV)
Mycoplasma
C. trachomatis (infants - 3 yrs)
C. pneumnoniae (school-aged)
S. pnumoniae
19
Q
Common causes of pneumonia in 18-40 yr olds
A
Mycoplasma
C. pneumoniae
S. pneumoniae
20
Q
Common causes of pneumonia in the elderly
A
S. pneumoniae
Influenza virus
Anaerobes
H. influenzae
Gram-negative rods
21
Q
Common causes of pneumoniae in alcoholics/IVDUs
A
S. pneumoniae
Klebsiella
Staph
22
Q
Common causes of pneumonia (aspiration)
A
Anaerobes
23
Q
Commona atypical pneumonias
A
-Mycoplasma
-Legionella
-Chlamydia
24
Q
Common causes of pneumonia in Cystic Fibrosis
A
Pseudomonas
S. aureus
S. pneumoniae
25
Q
Common causes of pneumonia in the immunocompromised
A
STaph
enteric gram-negative rods
fungi
viruses
P. jirovecii
26
Q
common nosocomial causes of pneumonia
A
Stap
pseudomonas
27
Q
Common causes of postviral pneumonia
A
staph
H. influenzae
S. pneumonia
28
Q
Common causes of meningitis in newborns (0-6 mo)
A
Group B strep
E. coli
Listeria
29
Q
common causes of meningitis inchildren 6 mo - 6 yrs
A
S. pnumoniae
N. meningitidis
H. ib
Enteroviruses
30
Q
Common causes of meningitis in those 6-60 yrs
A
S. pneumnoiae
N. meningitidis
enteroviruses
HSV
31
Q
common causes of meningitis in those over 60
A
S.pneumoniae
Listeria
32
Q
To treat pneumonia, empirically give...
A
ceftriaxone and vancomycin. Add ampicillin if listeria is suspected.
33
Q
Viral causes of meningitis include...
A
enterovirus (esp coxsackie), HSV-2, HIV, west nile and VZV
34
Q
In HIV, likely causes of meningitis are...
A
Cryptococcus, CMV, toxoplasmosis (brain abscess) and JC virus.
35
Q
CSF findings in bacterial meningitis
A
Opening pressure: increased
Cell type: increased PMNs
Protein: increased
Sugar: decreased
36
Q
CSF findings in fungal/TB meningitis
A
Opening pressure: increased
Cell type: increased lymphocytes
Protein: increased
Sugar: decreased
37
Q
CSF findings in viral meningitis
A
Opening pressure: normal/increased
Cell type: increased lymphocytes
Protein: normal/increased
Sugar: normal
38
Q
Most common cause of Osteomyelitis is...
A
S. aureus.
39
Q
If a pt is sexually active and has osteomyelitis, think...
A
N. gonorrhoeae or septic arthitis.
40
Q
If a pt has osteomyelitis and diabetes/or IVDU, suspect...
A
P. aeruginosa or serratia.
41
Q
If a pt has osteomyelitis and sickle cell, suspect...
A
salmonella.
42
Q
If a pt has prosthetic joint replacement and osteomyelitis, suspect...
A
S. aureus and S. epidermidis.
43
Q
If a pt has osteomyelitis with vertebral involvement, suspect...
A
Mycobacterium tubercuosis (pott disease).
44
Q
If a pt has cat and dog bites and osteomyelitis, suspect...
A
pasteurella multocida.
45
Q
Osteomyelitis may be subtle on...
A
radiographs and is more easily seen on MRI.
46
Q
Cystitis presents with...
A
dysuria, frequency, urgency, suprapubic pain and WBCs in the urine.
47
Q
Bladder infxn that ascends to the kidney presents with...
A
pyelonephritis (fever, chills, flank pain, CVA tenderness, hematuria, WBC casts.
48
Q
Diagnostic markers for UTI are:
A
1. positive leukocyte esterase test = bacterial UTI
2. Nitrite test positive = gram-negative bacterial UTI
49
Q
3 most common causes of UTI are:
A
1. E. coli
2. Staph saprophyticus
3. Klebsiella
50
Q
Bacterial vaginosis signs
A
-no inflammation
-thin, white discharge with fishy odor
51
Q
Bacterial vaginosis lab findings
A
-clue cells
-pH > 4.5
52
Q
Bacterial vaginosis treatment
A
Metronidazole
53
Q
Trichomoniasis signs
A
-inflammation
-frothy, grey-green, foul-smelling discharge
54
Q
Trichomoniasis lab findings
A
-motile trichomonads
-pH > 4.5
55
Q
Candida vulvovaginitis signs
A
-inflammation
-thick, white "cottage cheese" discharge
56
Q
Candida vulvovaginitis lab findings
A
-pseudohyphae
-pH normal (4-4.5)
57
Q
Treatment for Trichomoniasis
A
Metronidazole; also treat sexual partner
58
Q
Treatment for Candida vulvovaginitis
A
azoles
59
Q
Nonspecific signs common to many TORCHES infections are...
A
hepatosplenomegaly, jaundice, thrombocytopenia and growth retardation.
60
Q
In neonates, Parvovirus B19 causes...
A
hydrops fetalis.
61
Q
TORCHES infections
A
Toxoplasma gondii
Rubella
CMV
HIV
HSV2
Syphilis
62
Q
Toxoplasma gondii transmission
A
cat feces or ingestion of undercooked meat
63
Q
Toxoplasma maternal manifestations
A
asymptomatic; rare lymphadenopathy
64
Q
Neotnatal manifestations of toxoplasma
A
Classic triad: chorioretinitis, hydrocephalus, intracranial calcifications
65
Q
Transmission of rubella
A
respiratory droplets
66
Q
Rubella maternal manifestations
A
rash, lymphadenopathy, arthritis
67
Q
Rubella neonate manifestations
A
Class triad: PDA, cataracts and deafness
+/- "blueberry muffin" rash
68
Q
CMV transmission
A
sexual contact
organ transplants
69
Q
CMV maternal manifestations
A
asymptomatic
rare mono-like illness
70
Q
CMV neonatal manifestations
A
hearing loss, seizures, petechial rash, "blueberry muffin" rash
71
Q
HIV neonatal manifestations
A
recurrent infections and chronic diarrhea
72
Q
HSV-2 transmission
A
skin or mucous membrane contact (during delivery)
73
Q
HSV-2 neonatal manifestations
A
encephalitis, herpetic lesions
74
Q
Syphilis maternal manifestations
A
Primary chancre and disseminated rash
75
Q
Syphilis neonatal manifestations
A
-often results in stillbirth, hydrops fetalis
-if child survives, present with facial abnormalities (notched teeth (Hutchinson), saddle nose, short maxilla), saber shins and deafness
76
Q
Coxsackie virus presentation/hand-foot-mouth disease
A
vesicular rash on palms and soles; vesicles/ulcers in oral mucosa
77
Q
HHV-6/Roseola presentation
A
macular rash over body appears several days after high fever; can present with febrile seizure
78
Q
Measles/Rubeola presentation
A
begininning at head and moving down; rash is preceded by cough, coryza, conjunctivitis and blue-white spots on buccal mucosa
79
Q
Parvovirus B19/Erythema infectiosum/fifth disease presentation
A
"slapped cheek" rash on face
80
Q
Rubella virus presentation
A
rash begins at head and moves down leading to a fine truncal rash; postauricular lymphadenopathy
81
Q
Strep pyogenes/scarlet fever presentation
A
erythematous, sandpaper-like rash with fever and sore throat
82
Q
VZV/Chickenpox presentation
A
vesicular rash begins on trunk; spreads to face and extremities with lesions of different ages
83
Q
Chancroid
A
-painful genital ulcer, inguinal adenopathy
-H. ducreyi
84
Q
Chlamydia
A
-urethritis, cervicitis, conjunctivitis, reactive arthritis, PID
85
Q
Condylomata acuminata
A
-genital warts
-koilocytes
-HPV-6 and 11
86
Q
Genital herpes
A
-painful penile, vulvar or cervical vesicles and ulcers; can cause systemic symptoms such as fever, HA , myalgia
-HSV-2
87
Q
Gonorrhea
A
-urethritis
-cervicitis
-PID
-prostatitis
-epididymitis
-arthritis
-creamy purulent discharge
88
Q
Lymphogranuloma venereum
A
-infxn of lymphatics; painless genital ulcers
-painful lymphadenopathy (buboes)
89
Q
Trichomoniasis
A
-vaginitis
-strawberry cervix
-motile in wet prep
-yellow-green discharge

(trichomonas vaginalis)
90
Q
Common causes of PID are...
A
Chlamydia trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae.
91
Q
PID presents with...
A
cervical motion tenderness (chandelier sign), purulent discharge. May include salpingitis, endometritis, hydrosalpinx and tubo-ovarian abscess.
92
Q
PID can lead to...
A
Fitz-High-Curtis syndrome = infxn of the liver capsule and "violin string" adhesions of peritoneum to liver.
93
Q
Salpingitis is a risk factor for...
A
ectopic pregnancy, infertility, chronic pelvic pain and adhesions.
94
Q
Meningitis in unimmunized children is often caused by...
A
H. ib or poliovirus.
95
Q
Epiglottitis is often caused by...
A
H.ib (esp in unimmunized children).
96
Q
Epiglottitis presents with...
A
fever, dysphagia, drooling, dificulty breathing due to edematous "cherry red" epiglottis; shows thumbprint sign on X-ray.
97
Q
Pharyngitis in unimmunized is usually caused by...
A
C. diphtheriae
98
Q
Presentation of pharyngitis
A
graysih oropharyngeal exudate (pseduomembranes); painful throat