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Flashcards in Micro Systems - First Aid Deck (98):
1

Dominant flora of the skin

S. epidermidis

2

Dominant flora of the nose

S. epidermidis; colonized by S. aureus

3

Dominant flora of the oropharynx

viridans group strep

4

Dominant flora of the dental plaque

S. mutans

5

Dominant flora of the colon

B. fragilis > E. coli

6

Dominant flora of the vagina

Lactobacillus; colonized by E. coli and group B strep

7

Food poisoning that starts and ends quickly is from...

S. aureus or B. cereus.

8

B. cereus source

reheated rice

9

C. botulinum source

improperly canned foods

10

C. perfringens source

reheated meat dishes

11

E. coli O157:H7 source

undercooked meat

12

Salmonella source

poultry, meat, eggs

13

S. aureus source

meats, mayonnaise, custard; preformed toxin

14

V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus source

contaminated seafood

15

Bugs that cause bloody diarrhea (7)

1. campylobacter
2. E. histolytica
3. EHEC
4. EIEC
5. Salmonella
6. Shigella
7. Yersinia enterocolitica

16

Bugs that cause watery diarrhea (6)

1. C. difficile
2. C. perfringens
3. ETEC
4. Protozoa (Giardia, Cryptosporidium)
5. V. cholerae
6. Viruses

17

Common causes of pneumonia in neonates (

1. Group B strep
2. E. coli

18

Common causes of pneumonia in children 1 mo - 18 yrs

Viruses (RSV)
Mycoplasma
C. trachomatis (infants - 3 yrs)
C. pneumnoniae (school-aged)
S. pnumoniae

19

Common causes of pneumonia in 18-40 yr olds

Mycoplasma
C. pneumoniae
S. pneumoniae

20

Common causes of pneumonia in the elderly

S. pneumoniae
Influenza virus
Anaerobes
H. influenzae
Gram-negative rods

21

Common causes of pneumoniae in alcoholics/IVDUs

S. pneumoniae
Klebsiella
Staph

22

Common causes of pneumonia (aspiration)

Anaerobes

23

Commona atypical pneumonias

-Mycoplasma
-Legionella
-Chlamydia

24

Common causes of pneumonia in Cystic Fibrosis

Pseudomonas
S. aureus
S. pneumoniae

25

Common causes of pneumonia in the immunocompromised

STaph
enteric gram-negative rods
fungi
viruses
P. jirovecii

26

common nosocomial causes of pneumonia

Stap
pseudomonas

27

Common causes of postviral pneumonia

staph
H. influenzae
S. pneumonia

28

Common causes of meningitis in newborns (0-6 mo)

Group B strep
E. coli
Listeria

29

common causes of meningitis inchildren 6 mo - 6 yrs

S. pnumoniae
N. meningitidis
H. ib
Enteroviruses

30

Common causes of meningitis in those 6-60 yrs

S. pneumnoiae
N. meningitidis
enteroviruses
HSV

31

common causes of meningitis in those over 60

S.pneumoniae
Listeria

32

To treat pneumonia, empirically give...

ceftriaxone and vancomycin. Add ampicillin if listeria is suspected.

33

Viral causes of meningitis include...

enterovirus (esp coxsackie), HSV-2, HIV, west nile and VZV

34

In HIV, likely causes of meningitis are...

Cryptococcus, CMV, toxoplasmosis (brain abscess) and JC virus.

35

CSF findings in bacterial meningitis

Opening pressure: increased
Cell type: increased PMNs
Protein: increased
Sugar: decreased

36

CSF findings in fungal/TB meningitis

Opening pressure: increased
Cell type: increased lymphocytes
Protein: increased
Sugar: decreased

37

CSF findings in viral meningitis

Opening pressure: normal/increased
Cell type: increased lymphocytes
Protein: normal/increased
Sugar: normal

38

Most common cause of Osteomyelitis is...

S. aureus.

39

If a pt is sexually active and has osteomyelitis, think...

N. gonorrhoeae or septic arthitis.

40

If a pt has osteomyelitis and diabetes/or IVDU, suspect...

P. aeruginosa or serratia.

41

If a pt has osteomyelitis and sickle cell, suspect...

salmonella.

42

If a pt has prosthetic joint replacement and osteomyelitis, suspect...

S. aureus and S. epidermidis.

43

If a pt has osteomyelitis with vertebral involvement, suspect...

Mycobacterium tubercuosis (pott disease).

44

If a pt has cat and dog bites and osteomyelitis, suspect...

pasteurella multocida.

45

Osteomyelitis may be subtle on...

radiographs and is more easily seen on MRI.

46

Cystitis presents with...

dysuria, frequency, urgency, suprapubic pain and WBCs in the urine.

47

Bladder infxn that ascends to the kidney presents with...

pyelonephritis (fever, chills, flank pain, CVA tenderness, hematuria, WBC casts.

48

Diagnostic markers for UTI are:

1. positive leukocyte esterase test = bacterial UTI
2. Nitrite test positive = gram-negative bacterial UTI

49

3 most common causes of UTI are:

1. E. coli
2. Staph saprophyticus
3. Klebsiella

50

Bacterial vaginosis signs

-no inflammation
-thin, white discharge with fishy odor

51

Bacterial vaginosis lab findings

-clue cells
-pH > 4.5

52

Bacterial vaginosis treatment

Metronidazole

53

Trichomoniasis signs

-inflammation
-frothy, grey-green, foul-smelling discharge

54

Trichomoniasis lab findings

-motile trichomonads
-pH > 4.5

55

Candida vulvovaginitis signs

-inflammation
-thick, white "cottage cheese" discharge

56

Candida vulvovaginitis lab findings

-pseudohyphae
-pH normal (4-4.5)

57

Treatment for Trichomoniasis

Metronidazole; also treat sexual partner

58

Treatment for Candida vulvovaginitis

azoles

59

Nonspecific signs common to many TORCHES infections are...

hepatosplenomegaly, jaundice, thrombocytopenia and growth retardation.

60

In neonates, Parvovirus B19 causes...

hydrops fetalis.

61

TORCHES infections

Toxoplasma gondii
Rubella
CMV
HIV
HSV2
Syphilis

62

Toxoplasma gondii transmission

cat feces or ingestion of undercooked meat

63

Toxoplasma maternal manifestations

asymptomatic; rare lymphadenopathy

64

Neotnatal manifestations of toxoplasma

Classic triad: chorioretinitis, hydrocephalus, intracranial calcifications

65

Transmission of rubella

respiratory droplets

66

Rubella maternal manifestations

rash, lymphadenopathy, arthritis

67

Rubella neonate manifestations

Class triad: PDA, cataracts and deafness
+/- "blueberry muffin" rash

68

CMV transmission

sexual contact
organ transplants

69

CMV maternal manifestations

asymptomatic
rare mono-like illness

70

CMV neonatal manifestations

hearing loss, seizures, petechial rash, "blueberry muffin" rash

71

HIV neonatal manifestations

recurrent infections and chronic diarrhea

72

HSV-2 transmission

skin or mucous membrane contact (during delivery)

73

HSV-2 neonatal manifestations

encephalitis, herpetic lesions

74

Syphilis maternal manifestations

Primary chancre and disseminated rash

75

Syphilis neonatal manifestations

-often results in stillbirth, hydrops fetalis
-if child survives, present with facial abnormalities (notched teeth (Hutchinson), saddle nose, short maxilla), saber shins and deafness

76

Coxsackie virus presentation/hand-foot-mouth disease

vesicular rash on palms and soles; vesicles/ulcers in oral mucosa

77

HHV-6/Roseola presentation

macular rash over body appears several days after high fever; can present with febrile seizure

78

Measles/Rubeola presentation

begininning at head and moving down; rash is preceded by cough, coryza, conjunctivitis and blue-white spots on buccal mucosa

79

Parvovirus B19/Erythema infectiosum/fifth disease presentation

"slapped cheek" rash on face

80

Rubella virus presentation

rash begins at head and moves down leading to a fine truncal rash; postauricular lymphadenopathy

81

Strep pyogenes/scarlet fever presentation

erythematous, sandpaper-like rash with fever and sore throat

82

VZV/Chickenpox presentation

vesicular rash begins on trunk; spreads to face and extremities with lesions of different ages

83

Chancroid

-painful genital ulcer, inguinal adenopathy
-H. ducreyi

84

Chlamydia

-urethritis, cervicitis, conjunctivitis, reactive arthritis, PID

85

Condylomata acuminata

-genital warts
-koilocytes
-HPV-6 and 11

86

Genital herpes

-painful penile, vulvar or cervical vesicles and ulcers; can cause systemic symptoms such as fever, HA , myalgia
-HSV-2

87

Gonorrhea

-urethritis
-cervicitis
-PID
-prostatitis
-epididymitis
-arthritis
-creamy purulent discharge

88

Lymphogranuloma venereum

-infxn of lymphatics; painless genital ulcers
-painful lymphadenopathy (buboes)

89

Trichomoniasis

-vaginitis
-strawberry cervix
-motile in wet prep
-yellow-green discharge

(trichomonas vaginalis)

90

Common causes of PID are...

Chlamydia trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae.

91

PID presents with...

cervical motion tenderness (chandelier sign), purulent discharge. May include salpingitis, endometritis, hydrosalpinx and tubo-ovarian abscess.

92

PID can lead to...

Fitz-High-Curtis syndrome = infxn of the liver capsule and "violin string" adhesions of peritoneum to liver.

93

Salpingitis is a risk factor for...

ectopic pregnancy, infertility, chronic pelvic pain and adhesions.

94

Meningitis in unimmunized children is often caused by...

H. ib or poliovirus.

95

Epiglottitis is often caused by...

H.ib (esp in unimmunized children).

96

Epiglottitis presents with...

fever, dysphagia, drooling, dificulty breathing due to edematous "cherry red" epiglottis; shows thumbprint sign on X-ray.

97

Pharyngitis in unimmunized is usually caused by...

C. diphtheriae

98

Presentation of pharyngitis

graysih oropharyngeal exudate (pseduomembranes); painful throat