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Flashcards in Respiratory Drugs Deck (27)
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1
Q

<p>1st gen H1 blockers</p>

A

<p>-Diphenhydramine

- dimenhydrinate
- chlorpheniramine</p>

2
Q

<p>Clinical uses of 1st gen H1 blockers</p>

A

<p>-allergy

- motion sickness
- sleep aid</p>

3
Q

<p>Toxicity of H1 blockers</p>

A

<p>-sedation

- antimuscarinic
- anti-alpha-adrenergic</p>

4
Q

<p>2nd generation H1 blockers</p>

A

<p>-Loratadine

- fexofenadine
- desloratadine
- cetirizine</p>

5
Q

<p>uses of 2nd gen H1 blockers</p>

A

<p>-allergy </p>

6
Q

<p>Toxicity of 2nd gen H1 blockers</p>

A

<p>-far less sedating than 1st gen due to decreased entry into the CNS</p>

7
Q

<p>Guaifenesin</p>

A

<p>an expectorant that thins respiratory secretions</p>

8
Q

<p>N-acetylcysteine is...</p>

A

<p>a mucolytic that can loosen mucous plugs in CF pts; also used as an antidote for acetaminophen overdose</p>

9
Q

<p>Dextromethorphan</p>

A

<p>-antitussive (antagonizes NMDA glutamate receptors)
-codeine analog with mild opioid effect
-Nalone given for overdose
</p>

10
Q

<p>Pseudoephrine and phenylephrine are...</p>

A

<p>sympathomimetic alpha-agonistic nasal decongestants</p>

11
Q

<p>Use of Pseudoephrine and phenylephrine</p>

A

<p>-reduce hyperemia, edema and nasal congestion

| -open obstructed eustachian tubes</p>

12
Q

<p>Toxicity of pseudoephrine and phenylephrine</p>

A

<p>-HTN

| -CNS stimulation/anxiety (pseudoephrine)</p>

13
Q

<p>Bronchoconstriction is mediated by...</p>

A

<p>inflammatory processes and parasympathetic tone.</p>

14
Q

<p>Albuterol</p>

A

<p>beta-2 agonist that relaxes bronchial muscle used during acute asthma attack</p>

15
Q

<p>Salmeterol and Formoterol are...</p>

A

<p>long acting beta-2 agonists used for asthma prophylaxis; side effects include tremor and arrhythmia</p>

16
Q

<p>Theophylline (Methylxanthine) causes...</p>

A

<p>bronchodilation by inhibiting phosphodiesterase leading to increased cAMP levels due to decrased cAMP hydrolysis.</p>

17
Q

<p>Usage of Theophylline is limited by...</p>

A

<p>its narrow therapeutic index (cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity).</p>

18
Q

<p>Theophylline is metabolized by...</p>

A

<p>CYP450 and blocks the actions of adenosine.</p>

19
Q

<p>Ipratropium </p>

A

<p>competitive block of muscarinic receptors that prevents bronchoconstriction; used for COPD</p>

20
Q

<p>Beclomethasone and Fluticasone are...</p>

A

<p>corticosteroids that inhibit the synthesis of virtually all cytokines; they inactivate NF-kappaB, the transcription factor that induces the production of TNF-alpha and other inflammatory agents</p>

21
Q

<p>Corticosteroids (Beclomethasone, Fluticasone) are first line therapy for...</p>

A

<p>chronic asthma.</p>

22
Q

<p>Montelukast, Zafirkulast</p>

A

<p>block leukotriene receptors; esp good for aspirin induced asthma</p>

23
Q

<p>Zileuton</p>

A

<p>5-lipooxygenase pathway inhibitor; blocks conversion of arachidonic acid to leukotrienes</p>

24
Q

<p>Omalizumab</p>

A

<p>monoclonal anti-IgE antibody; binds unbound serum IgE and blocks its binding to FcepsilonRI</p>

25
Q

<p>Omalizumab is used in...</p>

A

<p>allergic asthma resistant to inahled steroids and long-acting beta-2 agonists</p>

26
Q

<p>Methacholine</p>

A

<p>muscarinic receptor agonist; used in bronchial provocation channel to help diagnose asthma</p>

27
Q

<p>Bosentan </p>

A

<p>antagonizes endothelin-1 receptors to decrease pulmonary vascular resistance; used to treat pulmonary arterial HTN</p>